# Makeup Source

Navigation: Models ➔ Other General Models ➔ Makeup Source

## General Description

• The Makeup Source acts as an infinite source of material.
• A Makeup Source is used to provide material to any number of Makeup Blocks which are enabled in units in the project.
• The Makeup Source is configured in almost the same way as a Feeder, with the user specifying the mass fractions of the species and the required temperature. However, the user does not specify the amount of material flowing from the unit, as this is the sum of the Makeup Block requirements.
• The Makeup Source will supply the amount of material as required by each Makeup Block and will display the individual flow to each unit, as well as the total flow required.
• The Makeup Source is NOT connected to the Makeup Blocks by a normal link. SysCAD creates a DirectLink which is automatically drawn at the Makeup Block. It is important to note that no links can be connected to the Makeup Source.

The following video is part of the Tutorial showing users how to insert and configure a Makeup Source:

## Diagram

The Makeup Source unit may be placed on any page in a simulation model. It can then be used on all pages in a model.

## Inputs and Outputs

The Makeup Source does not have any inputs or outputs.

The Makeup Block(s) are connected indirectly by selecting the name of the required Makeup Source from a drop down list of available makeup sources in the project as shown below:

## Data Sections

1. MakeupSource tab - this is the first Tab and is used to configure the following:
• Set the Temperature and Pressure (if required) of the material from the source; or
• Copy the composition, temperature and pressure (all three, or a combination of them) from another unit.
2. Total tab - Shows results. Only available in Build 138 or later. In Build 137 or earlier the same results are shown on the MakeupSource tab.
3. VLE - Optional tab that is visible if Vapour Liquid Equilibrium is enabled on the first tab.
4. Content tab - Optional tab only shown if ShowContent option on first tab page is ticked. Contains data on the material from the Source and may be spread across one or two Tabs, depending on the project and the selected views.
5. WQ - Optional tab, this tab is only visible if WaterQualities in the Plant Model - Views tab page is ticked.
6. DSp - this Tab contains the breakdown of the species contained in the project. This may be spread across one or two Tabs, depending on the number of species in the project.
7. DLockup - Optional tab that is visible if Qualities - "Lockup.Action = Create". Please see LockUp for more information.
8. DTrack - Optional tab that is visible if Qualities - "MatTrack.Action = Create". Please see Material Tracking for more information.
9. DSz - Optional tab that is visible if Qualities - "SzDist.Action = Create". This allows the user to define the Size Distribution(s) for the solids in the unit. Please see Size Distribution (PSD) for more information. The methods of defining the Size Distribution can be found in Size Distribution Definition.
10. DSSA - Optional tab that is visible if Qualities - "SzSSA.Action = Create". Please see Specific Surface Area (SSA) for more information.
11. QProd - This and subsequent tab pages, e.g. QProd.. and Sp, shows the properties of the stream out of the unit.
12. Info tab - Contains general settings for the unit and allows the user to include documentation about the unit and create Hyperlinks to external documents.
13. Links tab, contains a summary table for all the input and output streams.
14. Audit tab - Contains summary information required for Mass and Energy balance. See Model Examples for enthalpy calculation Examples.

The data sections and variable names are described in detail in the following table.

### MakeUp Source Page

Unit Type: MakeupSource - The first tab page in the access window will have this name.

Tag (Long/Short) Input / Calc Description / Calculated Variables
Tag Display This name tag may be modified with the change tag option.
Condition Display OK if no errors/warnings, otherwise lists errors/warnings.
ConditionCount Display The current number of errors/warnings. If condition is OK, returns 0.
GeneralDescription / GenDesc Display This is an automatically generated description for the unit. If the user has entered text in the 'EqpDesc' field on the Info tab (see below), this will be displayed here.
If this field is blank, then SysCAD will display the unit class ID.

#### MakeupSource Operation Selection

Operation General This operation allows user full control for setting all available MakeupSource options. Composition Fetch and full species list are available in the DSp tab.
Solids This operation mode will apply a solids filter to the DSp tab, all species in other phases are forced to zero. This operation mode does not allow composition Fetch. VLEquilibrium is not available as it does not apply to solids.
Liquids This operation mode will apply a liquids filter to the DSp tab, all species in other phases are forced to zero. This operation mode does not allow composition Fetch. VLEquilibrium selection is limited to Saturated or subcooled liquid.
Vapours This operation mode will apply a vapours filter to the DSp tab, all species in other phases are forced to zero. This operation mode does not allow composition Fetch. VLEquilibrium selection is limited to Saturated or Superheated vapour mixtures. NOTE: for mixed phases please use the General Operation mode.
Slurry This operation mode will apply a solids & liquids filter to the DSp tab, all species in other phases are forced to zero. This operation mode does not allow composition Fetch. VLEquilibrium selection is limited to Saturated or subcooled liquid.
Water This operation mode will apply a water filter to the DSp tab, the only species shown is Water. This operation mode does not allow composition Fetch. VLEquilibrium selection is limited to Saturated or subcooled liquid. NOTE: for non saturated conditions please use the General Operation mode.
Steam This operation mode will apply a Steam filter to the DSp tab, the only species shown is Steam. This operation mode does not allow composition Fetch. VLEquilibrium selection is limited to Saturated or Superheated pure steam. NOTE: for steam mixed with other vapours use the Vapours or General Operation mode.
PlantModel Air This operation will fetch the Global air specification from Plant Model - Environment Tab, Air Composition section into the DSp Tab.
PlantModel DryAir This operation will fetch the Global dry air specification from Plant Model - Environment Tab, DryAir Composition section into the DSp Tab.
Stream Fetch This operation will allow user to fetch the stream T, P, and composition information from another stream. User must specify the source stream, eg: P_104.Qo OR ROM_STOCKPILE.QFeed.
Content Fetch This is available for dynamic simulation only. This operation will allow user to fetch the T, P and composition information from another content (such as tank). User must specify the source, eg: Tank1.Content.
MakeupSrc Fetch This operation will allow user to fetch the stream information from another MakeupSrc. A DirectLink pipe is not created between the other MakeupSrc and this Makeup Source, and the flow used is NOT reflected in the other MakeupSrc total. The other MakeupSrc is used as a template definition for Composition, T and P.
Link to MakeupSrc This operation will allow user to draw the flow from another MakeupSrc, the DirectLink is automatically created similar to a Makeup block. The advantage of this operation mode is that the other MakeupSrc is the source of the material, a DirectLink stream is created and the flow used is reflected in the other MakeupSrc total. This is ideal for cascaded Makeup Sources, for example a single Makeup Source for total water supply, then intermediate Makeup Sources for each process area for area water demand.
Source Input

Visible with the Stream Fetch operation. User specified the source stream, eg: P_104.Qo OR ROM_STOCKPILE.QFeed
Visible with the Content Fetch operation. User specified the source content, eg: Tank1.Content. (This is for dynamic mode only)

MakeupSrc DropList Visible with the MakeupSrc Fetch operation. User selects the available makeup source unit from the list.
NOTE: If setting the makeup source via a controller or Excel, use the tag name of the makeup source. This is a string variable and cannot be set by integer index.
SrcLink... (This group is only visible with Link to MakeupSrc operation mode)
MakeupSrc DropList Visible with the Link to MakeupSrc operation. User selects the available makeup source unit from the list.
NOTE: If setting the makeup source via a controller or Excel, use the tag name of the makeup source. This is a string variable and cannot be set by integer index.
Connect Feedback Returns the status of the makeup connection with the makeup source. If the makeup source tag is invalid or empty, an error will be given.

#### Flow Requirements

The SpModel.Reqd field is only shown if more than one Species Model is available in the project (eg. Standard and Bayer3).

SpModel.Reqd Inherit Upstream configuration will be used.
Standard Most of the variables are calculated using the Mass Weighted Mean of the species. See Standard Species Model
Species Model Use an alternative species model, such as 'Bayer3' or 'Potash'.
SpModel.Used Standard The Standard species model is being used.
Species Model An alternative species model is being used.
SpModelType Display This field displays the Species Model type used in the unit.

#### Temperature & Pressure Requirements

Note: The VLE options are only valid for components with VLE information. When one of the VLE options is chosen, the VLE tab will be visible. Note that some VLE conditions are inherently unachievable: for example you can never have a saturated vapour if there are nonvolatile liquid components present. See these notes. If you try to set an unachievable condition you will get an error.

VLEquilibrium Off Default. No VLE data is applied. The user can enter values for both P_Reqd and T_Reqd.
Saturated_Vap(T) The Feeder composition will be auto adjusted to saturated VAPOUR conditions at the Temperature in the T_Reqd field.
Saturated_Vap(P) The Feeder composition will be auto adjusted to saturated VAPOUR conditions at the Pressure in the P_Reqd field.
SuperHeat_Vap(dT,P) Only available in Build 137 or later. This allows the Feeder mixture to be at superheated conditions at the Pressure in the P_Reqd field. The temperature will be automatically adjusted to be at the saturated temperature plus SuperHeatReqd.
SuperHeat_Vap(T,P) This allows the Feeder mixture to be at superheated conditions. P_Reqd must be  ≤ P_saturated at the specified Temperature (T_Reqd)(SysCAD will auto adjust the pressure if it is greater than the saturated pressure).
Saturated_Liq(T) The Feeder composition will be auto adjusted to saturated LIQUID conditions at the Temperature in the T_Reqd field.
Saturated_Liq(P) The Feeder composition will be auto adjusted to saturated LIQUID conditions at the Pressure in the P_Reqd field.
Subcooled_Liq(dT,P) Only available in Build 137 or later. This allows the Feeder mixture to be at sub-cooled conditions at the Pressure in the P_Reqd field. The temperature will be automatically adjusted to be at the saturated temperature minus SubCoolingReqd.
Subcooled_Liq(T,P) This allows the Feeder mixture to be at sub-cooled conditions. P_Reqd must be  ≥ P_saturated at the specified Temperature (T_Reqd) (SysCAD will auto adjust the pressure if it is less than the saturated pressure).
Saturated(X,T) The Feeder composition will be auto adjusted to saturated conditions at the Temperature in the T_Reqd field, with a vapour fraction (steam quality if the volatile component is H2O) of X_Reqd.
Saturated(X,P) The Feeder composition will be auto adjusted to saturated conditions at the Pressure in the P_Reqd field, with a vapour fraction (steam quality if the volatile component is H2O) of X_Reqd.
Saturated_Non_Cond(T,P) The vapour fraction of the volatile component (X_Rqd) will be auto adjusted to saturated conditions at the Temperature in the T_Reqd field and Pressure in the P_Reqd field, when non-condensable gases are present.
Relative Humidity The Feeder must contain gases. If the user selects this option, SysCAD will adjust the amount of H2O(g) to give the required relative humidity in the gas stream. SysCAD will adjust the fractions of the gases in the Feeder other than H2O(g) proportionally.
Relative Humidity = Partial Pressure of H2O(g) / Saturation Pressure of H2O(g) at Stream Temperature * 100
VapourCalcs Display This field is only visible if VLEquilibrium is in use. Shows VLE method and component used.
TemperatureReqd / T_Reqd Input / Calc The required temperature of the material from the feeder. This value is calculated if one of the Saturated at pressure or dT VLE options are chosen.
PressureReqd / P_Reqd Input / Calc The required input pressure. This value is not usually required for steady state mass balances. However, for energy balances, especially in the case of steam/water, it is important that the correct pressure is specified. This value is calculated if one of the Saturated at temperature VLE options is chosen.
StaticHead Input Only visible in Dynamic projects. The static head. This will affect the pressure in the downstream pipe.
SuperHeatReqd Input This field is only visible if the SuperHeat_Vap(dT,P) VLE option is selected (only available in Build 137 or later). This is the degrees of superheat of the stream (T - Saturation temperature).
SubCoolingReqd Input This field is only visible if the SubCooled_Liq(dT,P) VLE option is selected (only available in Build 137 or later). This is the degrees of subcooling of the stream (Saturation temperature - T).
X_Reqd(VapourFrac) Input / Calc This field is only visible if VLEquilibrium is in use. The required vapour fraction (or steam quality if the volatile component is H2O) of the material from the feeder. This value is calculated unless the Saturated(X,T) or Saturated(X,P) VLE option is chosen.
RelHumidityReqd Input This field is only visible if the RelativeHumidity VLE option is selected. This is the required relative humidity (Partial Pressure of H2O(g) / Saturation Pressure of H2O(g) at Stream Temperature) of the feed.

#### Qualities

(These options are only available as specified in the model's configuration file.)
Lockup.Action Input The user may choose to Create the Lockup quality. The 'Lockup' values are set on the 'DLockup' tab. The field displays the actual state of the Lock Up function: If this has been enabled then this will display 'Lockup.Action(On)', otherwise it will display 'Lockup.Action'. Please see LockUp for more information.
Note: Lockup must first be enabled on the Plant Model - Qualities Tab before the user may create it here.
MatTrack.Action Input The user may choose to Create the Material Tracking quality. The 'Tracking' values are set on the 'DTrack' tab. The field displays the actual state of the Material Tracking function: If this has been enabled then this will display 'MatTrack.Action(On)', otherwise it will display 'MatTrack.Action'. Please see Material Tracking for more information.
Note: Material Tracking must first be configured on the Plant Model - Qualities Tab before the user may create it here.
SzDist.Action Input The user may choose to Create the Size Distribution quality. The 'Size Distribution' values are set on the 'DSz' tab. The field displays the actual state of the Size Distribution function: If this has been enabled then this will display 'SzDist.Action(On)', otherwise it will display 'SzDist.Action'. Please see Size Distribution (PSD) for more information.
SzSSA.Action Input The user may choose to Create the Specific Surface Area (SSA) quality. The 'SSA' values are set on the 'SSA' tab. The field displays the actual state of the SSA function: If this has been enabled then this will display 'SzSSA.Action(On)', otherwise it will display 'SzSSA.Action'. Please see Specific Surface Area (SSA) for more information.
Lockup.InUse Display Displays the state of the LockUp function: Yes or No.
MatTrack.InUse Display Displays the state of the Material Tracking function: Yes or No.
SzDist.InUse Display Displays the state of the Size Distribution (PSD) function: Yes or No.
SzSSA.InUse Display Displays the state of the Specific Surface Area (SSA) function: Yes or No.

#### CF (Composition Fetch)

CF.When Off No information will be transferred automatically. The user may still manually transfer data from the source by pressing the CF.Fetch button.
OnceOff This mode allows a once off automatic information transfer of information at the next project step (if the project is solving) or when project solve/run is started (if the project is stopped). Once the data has been transferred, it will revert back to the off mode.
Continuous This mode allows continuous automatic information transfer while the project is solving. This is similar to a cross page connector in terms of material flow but the solver will treat the unit operations separately. Therefore, for large projects with difficult to solve recycle streams, this is a great way of breaking up the solver network to improve solve speed.
CF.What Nothing No information will be fetched.
T Temperature information from the CF.Source unit (specified by the user) will be used.
P Pressure information from the CF.Source unit (specified by the user) will be used.
T, P Temperature and Pressure information from the CF.Source unit (specified by the user) will be used.
Comp Component make up information from the CF.Source unit (specified by the user) will be used.
T, Comp Temperature and Component make up information from the CF.Source unit (specified by the user) will be used.
P, Comp Pressure and Component make up information from the CF.Source unit (specified by the user) will be used.
T, P, Comp Temperature, Pressure and Component make up information from the CF.Source unit (specified by the user) will be used.
CF.What.Phase Only available in Build 139 or later. Only shown if the CF.What option selected includes Comp and/or Flow.
All The fetch will be based on ALL of the phases in the stream.
Solids The fetch will only be based on the solid phase in the stream.
Liquids The fetch will only be based on the liquid phase in the stream.
Vapours The fetch will only be based on the vapour phase in the stream.
Solids & Liquids The fetch will only be based on the solid and liquid phases in the stream.
Solids & Vapours The fetch will only be based on the solid and vapour phases in the stream.
Liquids & Vapours The fetch will only be based on the liquid and vapour phases in the stream.
CF.What.Quality Tick Box Different options will appear in this space depending on the options available. Possible options include: LockUp, Size data and so on.
CF.Source Input The user inputs the source unit from where the data is copied.
CF.WarnOnZeroSrc Tick Box Flag a warning message if the source of the composition fetch drops to zero flow.
CF.WarnOnCoExist Tick Box
CF.Fetch Button The user may fetch the information from the Source by pressing this button.

#### Options

ShowContent Tick Box If enabled the Content tab pages will be displayed. Contains data on the material from the Source and may be spread across one or two Tabs, depending on the project and the selected views.
(In Build 137 or earlier some results are shown on this page. In Build 138 or later these are shown on the Total page.)

### Total Page

Only available in Build 138 or later. In Build 137 or earlier the same results are shown on the MakeupSource tab.

Tag (Long/Short) Input / Calc Description / Calculated Variables

#### Results: Total Flow Conditions

State Display Displays the state of the unit.
MassFlow / Qm Display The mass flow out of the source.
VolFlow / Qv Display The volume flow out of the source.
NVolFlow / NQv Display The normalised volume flow out of the source.
Temperature / T Calc The temperature of the material flowing out of the source.
Density / Rho Calc The density of the material flowing out of the source.
NDensity / NRho Display The normalised density of the material flowing out of the source.
Pressure / P Calc The pressure of the material flowing out of the source.

#### Summary

Total.MassFlow / Qm Calc The total Mass of material flowing out of the source.
Total.VolFlow / Qv Calc The total Volume of material flowing out of the source.
Total.NVolFlow / NQv Calc The total Normalised Volume of material flowing out of the source.
Total.Moles Calc The total number of Moles of material flowing out of the source.
[email protected] Calc The total Sensible Enthalpy of the material flowing out of the source.
[email protected] Calc The total Enthalpy including Phase Change of the material flowing out of the source.
[email protected] Calc The Total Enthalpy of the material flowing out of the source.

#### Totals

This section displays a list of all units which have makeup blocks using this makeup source. The three columns of data displayed for each unit are described below:
DemandTag Display The tag of the unit which has at least one makeup block using this makeup source.
Count Calc The number of makeup blocks in the unit which are using this makeup source.
MassFlow / Qm Calc The total mass of material flowing from this makeup source to the unit.

#### Networks

Network.Count Calc The number of networks which have at least one makeup block using this makeup source.
Network.List Display A list of the Network IDs of the networks which have at least one makeup block using this makeup source.
This section displays a list of the networks which have makeup blocks using this makeup source. The five columns displayed for each network are described below:
NetID Calc The Network ID.
MUCount Calc The number of makeup blocks within the network which are using this makeup source.
MassFlow / Qm Calc The total mass of material flowing from this makeup source to the network.
VolFlow / Qv Calc The total volume of material flowing from this makeup source to the network.
Clipboard Button If this button is pressed, a dropdown list of two options will appear:

Tags: A list of the units within the network which have makeup blocks using this makeup source will be copied to the clipboard.
Tags Flows: A table of the units within the network which have makeup blocks using this makeup source, along with their current mass and volume flows, will be copied to the clipboard.

### Content Tab Page

This section mainly has read only variables, except for the first section, Model.

• Model determines which species model the feeder uses. The options available to the user will depend on the species model used by the project. Please refer to the species model for a description of this page, if a species model is chosen. The default, 'Standard', will be described here.
Tag (Long/short) Input / Calc Calculated Variables / Options

#### Model

The SpModel.Reqd field is only shown if more than one Species Model is available in the project (eg. Standard and Bayer3). On a Content page, it is an input field. If SpModel.Reqd is set to Inherit, then the species model used with the be the default method as selected in the configuration file.

SpModel.Reqd Inherit Upstream configuration will be used.
Standard All the variables are calculated using the Mass Weighted Mean of the species.
Species Model Use an alternative species model, such as 'Bayer3' or 'Potash'.
SpModel.Used Standard The Standard species model is being used.
Species Model An alternative species model is being used.
SpModelType Display This field displays the Species Model type (or Name) used.

#### Content Properties

Temperature / T Calc The temperature of the incoming material.
Pressure / P Calc The pressure of the incoming material.
Density See the section on Density for further information.
Density / Rho Calc Calculated Density of the material
SolidDensity / SRho Calc Density of the solids phase
LiquidDensity / LRho Calc Density of the liquid phase
VapourDensity / VRho Calc Density of the vapour phase
SlurryDensity / SLRho Calc Density of the Slurry (Liquid and Solid phase)
SolidConc Calc The solids concentration at stream temperature.
Density Correction
H2O(l).State Data This will be OK if all of the species with density correction functions in the Makeup Source conditions are within their mass fraction limits. Any species that has exceeded it's mass fraction limit will be shown in this field.
For example, if the user has a density correction function for NiSO4(aq) that is valid up to a mass fraction of 10% NiSO4 and the stream contains 15% NiSO4(aq), this field will contain: Limit:NiSO4(aq).
H2O(l).Rho Calc The density of pure water at the temperature and pressure of the Makeup Source.
H2O(l).CorrFactor Calc The calculated density correction factor using all the correction factors of aqueous species in the Makeup Source for which density correction factors have been defined. Please see Density Correction Function.
H2O(l).AppRho Calc The calculated density of the liquor with only water and the components that have density correction functions.

Note: This value may be lower or higher than the actual liquid density if there are other liquid components in the Makeup Source that do not have density correction functions.

If the Additional Density Correction option is selected in the Plant Model - Species tab page or from the Include Properties dropdown list on the first page of the material Flow section, then the following fields will also be shown:
H2O(l).AppRho25 Calc The calculated density of the liquor with only water and the components that have density correction functions, at 25°C.
H2O(l).AppQm Calc The calculated mass flow of the liquor with only water and the components that have density correction functions.
H2O(l).AppQv Calc The calculated volume flow of the liquor with only water and the components that have density correction functions.
H2O(l).Fct.X(y) Calc The calculated density correction factor for species X(y).
Mass Fractions
SolidFrac / Sf Calc Solids mass fraction
LiquidFrac / Lf Calc Liquid mass fraction
VapourFrac / Vf Calc Vapour mass fraction
SlurryFrac / SLf Calc Only available in Build 139.31388 or later. Slurry (solids + liquids) mass fraction.
Slurry.SolidFrac / Slurry.Sf Calc Only available in Build 137 or later. Solids mass fraction on slurry basis (solids + liquids)
Slurry.LiquidFrac / Slurry.Lf Calc Only available in Build 137 or later. Liquid mass fraction on slurry basis (solids + liquids)
Volume Fractions (The following fields are only available in Build 137 or later.)
SolidVolFrac / Svf Calc Solids volume fraction
LiquidVolFrac / Lvf Calc Liquid volume fraction
VapourVolFrac / Vvf Calc Vapour volume fraction
SlurryVolFrac / SLvf Calc Only available in Build 139.31388 or later. Slurry (solids + liquids) volume fraction.
Slurry.SolidVolFrac / Slurry.Svf Calc Only available in Build 139.31388 or later. Solids volume fraction on slurry basis (solids + liquids)
Slurry.LiquidVolFrac / Slurry.Lvf Calc Only available in Build 139.31388 or later. Liquid volume fraction on slurry basis (solids + liquids)
Molar Fractions
MlSolidFrac / MlSf Calc Solids molar fraction
MlLiquidFrac / MlLf Calc Liquid molar fraction
MlVapourFrac / MlVf Calc Vapour molar fraction
MlSlurryFrac / MlSLf Calc Only available in Build 139.31388 or later. Slurry (solids + liquids) molar fraction.
MoleWt Calc The average molecular weight of all the species.
SolidMoleWt / SMoleWt Calc Only available in Build 139 or later. The average molecular weight of all solid species.
LiquidMoleWt / LMoleWt Calc Only available in Build 139 or later. The average molecular weight of all liquid species.
VapourMoleWt / VMoleWt Calc Only available in Build 139 or later. The average molecular weight of all vapour species.

#### Content Energy

These properties will only be shown if the user has chosen to display the Energy (Thermodynamic) Properties on the Plant Model - Views tab page or from the Include Properties dropdown list on the first page of the material Flow section.

Specific Heat
[email protected] Calc Cp of the total mixture in the Makeup Source @ 0 °C.
Cp / [email protected] Calc Cp of the total mixture in the Makeup Source @ temperature.
[email protected] Calc Solids Cp at the Makeup Source temperature
[email protected] Calc Liquid Cp at the Makeup Source temperature
[email protected] Calc Vapour Cp at the Makeup Source temperature
[email protected] Calc Slurry Cp at the Makeup Source temperature
CpCv Calc The ratio of specific heat at constant pressure to specific heat at constant volume at the Makeup Source temperature.
Enthalpy - Sensible
[email protected] Calc The change in enthalpy, dH, (excluding phase change) from 0°C to Makeup Source temperature for the total mixture.
[email protected] Calc The change in enthalpy, dH, (excluding phase change) from 0°C to Makeup Source temperature for the solids.
[email protected] Calc The change in enthalpy, dH, (excluding phase change) from 0°C to Makeup Source temperature for the Liquids.
[email protected] Calc The change in enthalpy, dH, (excluding phase change) from 0°C to Makeup Source temperature for the vapours, or gases.
[email protected] Calc The change in enthalpy, dH, (excluding phase change) from 0°C to Makeup Source temperature for the combined solids and liquids.
Enthalpy - including Phase Change (Please see What is the difference between Hs and Hz?
[email protected] Calc The change in enthalpy, dH,(including phase change) from 0°C to Makeup Source temperature for the total mixture.
Total Enthalpy (previously called Enthalpy of Formation) Total Enthalpy = Heat of Formation at 25 + $\displaystyle{ \int\limits_{25}^{T}Cp dT\, }$
[email protected] Calc Total Enthalpy for the mixture at 0°C and 101.325 kPa, per mass.
[email protected] Calc Total Enthalpy for the mixture at the Makeup Source temperature and pressure, per mass.
Entropy and Free Energy
[email protected] Calc Entropy for the total mixture at 0°C and 101.325 kPa.
[email protected] Calc Entropy for the total mixture at the Makeup Source temperature and pressure.
[email protected] Calc Gibbs Free Energy (mass basis) for the total mixture at 0°C and 101.325 kPa. This is only visible in Build 138 and later.
[email protected] Calc Gibbs Free Energy (mass basis) for the total mixture at the Makeup Source temperature and pressure. This is only visible in Build 138 and later.
[email protected] Calc Gibbs Free Energy (mole basis) for the total mixture at the Makeup Source temperature and pressure. This is only visible in Build 138 and later.

#### Values at User defined Temperature and Pressure

Please see included properties - Values at User Defined T and P.

#### Solubility Values

Please see included properties - Solubility.

#### Saturation Values

These properties are related to the saturation temperature and pressure of solution. These fields are only visible if the Additional Properties option for Saturation values is selected in the Plant Model - Views tab page or from the Include Properties dropdown list on the first page of the material Flow section.

Saturation...
Component List Any component that has the correct Vp Equations defined in the species database maybe selected here. See VLE sub section for more information.
VapourFrac / Vf Calc Only available in Build 137 or later. Displays the vapour mass fraction.
TotalP Calc Displays the total pressure.
PartialP Calc Displays the partial pressure based on the component selected.
[email protected] Calc Saturated pressure at the mixture temperature.
[email protected] Calc Saturated temperature at the mixture's partial pressure. Will be NAN (displayed as *) when no partial pressure.
[email protected] Calc Saturated temperature at the mixture pressure.
[email protected] Calc Displays the Saturation Temperature at pressure based on pure water. This is used to calculate the Boiling point elevation. (Please see Water and Steam Properties for further information on this calculation)
BPE Calc
1. Standard Species Model
2. Other Species Models, e.g. Bayer

Note: User can change the BPE value limits in the Plant Model - species tab.

Temperature / T Calc Temperature of the Makeup Source.
[email protected] Calc Super Heat at the mixture's partial pressure ([email protected]). Will be NAN (displayed as *) when no partial pressure.
[email protected] Calc Super Heat at the mixture's pressure ([email protected]).
[email protected] Calc Only available in Build 137 or later. The amount of Subcooling at the mixture's pressure ([email protected]).
LatHtVap Calc The Latent heat of vaporisation of the listed component at the temperature and partial pressure of the vaporizing species at the local conditions. The latent heat is the difference in enthalpy between the vapour phase and the liquid phase of the species. This is calculated as Enthalpy(VapourPhase at local Temperature and Partial Pressure) - Enthalpy(Liquid Phase at T and Total Pressure). This is the enthalpy difference used in energy calculations. NB unless the partial pressure of the vaporizing species is equal to the saturation pressure, the latent heat may not have exactly the same value as for saturation conditions since the vapor phase enthalpy depends on its partial pressure.
[email protected] Calc The Latent heat of vaporisation of the listed component at the temperature and saturation pressure of the vaporizing species corresponding to the local temperature. The latent heat is the difference in enthalpy between the vapour phase and the liquid phase of the species. This is calculated as Enthalpy(VapourPhase at Temperature, T and saturation pressure for that T, PSat(T)) - Enthalpy(Liquid Phase at T and Total Pressure). This is the latent heat that would be found in saturation tables for a given temperature.
RelHumidity Calc The relative humidity of the Makeup Source. This is only useful if the Makeup Source contains gases, such as O2, N2, Air, etc.

Relative Humidity = Partial Pressure of the Saturation Component (usually H2O) / Saturation Pressure of the Saturation Component at Stream Temperature * 100
Please see the YouTube link for a video presentation on setting up a feeder with the required Relative Humidity.

#### Acidity (pH)

These values are calculated based on the Ka and Kb values for acids and bases that are defined in the species database. It does not take buffering into account, and hence is, at best, an estimate of the pH.

SysCAD does have default Ka and Kb values defined for some acids and bases, and the user may enter values for other compounds. For a description of the method that SysCAD uses to calculate the acidity values see Acidity Calculations.

These values will only be shown if the user has chosen to display the pH_Estimate variables on the Plant Model - Views tab page or from the Include Properties dropdown list on the first page of the material Flow section.

Acidity(@25C)
pH.State Calc Either OK - only acids or bases present, OR Acid and Base present, therefore the calculations will be inaccurate.
pH.negLogH Calc This is the negative of the log of the Hydrogen ion molar concentration at 25°C.
pH.AcidsPresent List This lists all of the acids present in the Makeup Source that are used to calculate [H+] (molar concentration).
pH.BasesPresent List This lists all of the bases present in the Makeup Source that are used to calculate [OH-] (molar concentration).
pH.H_Cation Calc Only available in Build 137 or later. Only displayed if the species list includes H+(aq). This is the negative of the log of the Hydrogen ion molar concentration at 25 °C, due only to the presence of the H+(aq) ion (all other acids and bases are ignored).

#### Charge

Please see included properties - Charge

#### Transport Properties

Please see included properties - Transport

#### Heats of Combustion Properties

Only available in Build 139 or later, please see included properties - Heats of Combustion.

#### Solution Impurities

Please see included properties - Solution Impurities.

#### H2O Properties

Please see included properties - H2O Properties

### WQ Tab Page

Please see included properties - Water Quality.

### DSp Tab Page

The DSp (default name) sections allow the user to specify the composition of the material from the source. The DSp page MUST be configured, unless the user selects the 'Composition Fetch' option from the first page.

### DLockup Tab Page

 Tag (Long/Short) Input / Calc Description/Calculated Variables / Options Lockup Quality Configuration - Create DLockup... Each lockup species (selected on the Plant Model - Qualities Tab) will have the following field: LockUpReqd Input The fraction of the species that is 'locked up', or not available for reaction.

### DTrack Tab Page

 Tag (Long/Short) Input / Calc Description/Calculated Variables / Options Material Tracking Set Options SetMethod None (Hide) This method is only available if 'Modify' is chosen on the Qi or Content page. This will hide the configurable fields. Single Material This method is used if all species are the same material. Select the Material from the drop down list. Material Fractions This method is used if all species have the same mix of materials. Enter the fractions for each material. The fractions must add to 1. If the specified percentages add to less than 1 then the leftover is assumed to be 'Other' material. When 'Modify' is being used, a '*' may be entered to allow the feed fraction to be used (ie. not modified). All Fractions This method allows each species with material tracking to have a different mix of materials. As with the Material Fractions method, the user must enter the fractions for each material, but now for each species with material tracking in a table. The fractions for each species must add to 1. If the specified fractions add to less than 1 then the leftover is assumed to be 'Other' material. When 'Modify' is being used, a '*' may be entered to allow the feed fraction to be used (ie. not modified). Redistribute Other (All) This method is only available if 'Modify' is chosen on the Qi or Content page. This will redistribute the fraction of 'Other' material to the other fractions in line with their current fractions for all species. Redistribute Other This method is only available if 'Modify' is chosen on the Qi or Content page. For each species selected, the fraction of 'Other' material will be redistributed to the other fractions in line with their current fractions. For example, if a species had 50% Red, 25% Green and 40% Other, this will be changed to 67% Red, 33% Green and 0% Other. If the species is 100% Other, then this will remain as Other. SetWhen This method is only available if 'Modify' is chosen on the Qi or Content page, or if 'Modify Content' is chosen on the Content page of a surge unit. Off This option allows the user to keep their configuration while not actually modifying the quality. AtStart This option is only available if 'Modify Content' is chosen. The modify will only be applied at the start of a run. Always The modify will always be applied. SetNow Button This button is only available if 'Modify Content' is chosen. This allows the Modify to be applied when pressed manually or when set via a General Controller (PGM). Material List Only visible if SetMethod 'Single Material' is chosen. A list of all Materials as defined on the Plant Model - Qualities Tab. Mat001.Rqd Input Only visible if SetMethod 'Material Fractions' is chosen. The required fraction of this material. There will be one of these fields for each material as defined on the Plant Model - Qualities Tab. Other.Rqd Calc Only visible if SetMethod 'Material Fractions' is chosen. The fraction which is assumed to be 'Other' material. This will be 1-(sum of all defined material required fractions). SpecieName Tickbox Only visible if SetMethod 'Redistribute Other' is chosen. This option determines whether the 'Other' material will be redistributed to the other materials for this species. There will be one of these fields for each species for which material tracking is enabled on the Plant Model - Qualities Tab. AllowDirectSet Tickbox This allows the fractions on the Track tab page to be directly set for all species, similar to the way the mass of the contents may be directly changed on the 'M' (Mass) content tab page.

Please see Material Tracking - DTrack Data Sections for an explanation of the fields.

### DSz Tab Page

 Tag (Long/Short) Input / Calc Description/Calculated Variables / Options Inputs Distribution Input / Display If more than one Size Distribution has been defined for the project, then the user may select the required Size distribution in this field.If only a single Size Distribution is defined for the project, then this field displays the Size distribution. Method Rosin-Rammler Mass fraction retained in each size interval is calculated using the Rosin-Rammler equation with two user-specified constants: a & b. Modified Rosin-Rammler Mass fraction retained in each size interval is calculated using the Modified Rosin-Rammler equation with two user-specified constants: d50 and sharpness constant. Gaudin-Schuhmann Mass fraction retained in each size interval is calculated using the Gaudin-Schuhmann equation with two user-specified constants: k & m. Lynch Mass fraction retained in each size interval is calculated using the Lynch equation with two user-specified constants, d50 & m. LinearInterpolate This method takes a user defined number of data points and interpolates to determine the size distribution across the full range of size intervals. DataPoints: Interval Fraction With this method the user directly sets the mass fraction in each individual size interval. SingleDefn Tick Box This is enabled when you are tracking size data independently for multiple solids species. When enabled the user can select this to set a single size distribution definition that applies to ALL solid species (rather then separate parameters for each solid). The required inputs will depend on the Method chosen. The Size Distribution fields will either be display fields, or in the case of Data Entry they will be input fields. Please see Size Distribution Definition for the equations and description of these fields. Display Options View (Not visible for Data Entry methods) Interval Fraction The table will display the calculated mass fraction in each interval fraction. Cumulative Passing The table will display the cumulative mass passing through each sieve size. In this case the top size will always display 100%. Cumulative Retained The table will display the cumulative mass retained on each sieve size. In this case the top size will always display 0%. Intervals Clicking on this button will toggle between displaying the size intervals in Ascending or Descending order. Size_Units List The user may select the display units, ie.e mm, um, etc., from a drop-down list.

### DSSA Tab Page

 Tag (Long/Short) Input / Calc Description/Calculated Variables / Options SSA Quality Method Display Independent - when no PSD present and calculated from SAM; or FromPSD - when calculated from full PSD. SetData Tickbox Allows the user to set values for SAM or Diameter (D). This is set by selecting Create for SzSSA.Action . SetDiam Tickbox Option when SetData is in use. Allows user to define SAM or D. Solids List Solids Species that SSA calculations are based on. Result field if SSA solid component is set globally in PlantModel. Otherwise, allows the user to select the solid component to base the SSA calculations on. Note: The selected solid flowrate must be non-zero for the propagation of the following parameters to downstream unit operations. Solids.Qm Calc The amount of selected SSA solids species (eg: Al[OH]3) present. SeedSurfaceAreaM / SAM Input Seed Surface Area, Mass basis (m²/g) SeedSurfaceAreaL / SAL Calc Seed Surface Area, Volume basis (m²/L). That is total Liquid Volume basis at temperature. #/s Calc Particle number per second. #/L Calc Particle number per litre. D / PartDiam Input Input when SetData is in use and SetDiam is selected. Particle diameter.

## Adding this Model to a Project

Insert into Configuration file

Sort either by DLL or Group.

 DLL: Basic1.dll → Units/Links → Process: Makeup Source or Group: General → Units/Links → Process: Makeup Source

Insert into Project

 Insert Unit → Process → Makeup Source

See Insert Unit for general information on inserting units.