Template:Separ Table

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The page allows the user to specify the split between the Underflow and Overflow streams.

Tag (Long/Short) Input / Calc Description/Calculated Variables / Options
Requirements
Split Method Mass Fraction The users may specify the mass fraction split between the Underflow and Overflow streams.
Mass Flow The user may specify the mass flow to either the Underflow or Overflow stream - either as total flow or on a phase basis.
Volume Fraction The users may specify the volumetric fraction split between the Underflow and Overflow streams.
Volume Flow The user may specify the Volume flow to either the Underflow or Overflow stream - either as total flow or on a phase basis.
Solid Separation The user may specify the solid split between the Underflow and Overflow streams.
Each of the above Split Methods will be described separately below:

Mass Fraction

With this method the user can specify the mass fraction to either the Underflow or the Overflow on a total or by phase basis.

SplitTo Underflow The user specifies the mass fraction split to the Underflow stream.
Overflow The user specifies the mass fraction split to the Overflow stream.
SplitBy Total The user specifies the total mass fraction split to the defined stream.
Phase The user specifies the solid and liquid mass fraction splits to the defined stream.
FracToUF or FracToOF Input This is visible if SplitBy = Total. The user sets the total mass fraction split to the defined stream.
SolidsToUF or SolidsToOF Input This is visible if SplitBy = Phase. The user sets the solid mass fraction split to the defined stream.
LiquidsToUF or LiquidsToOF Input This is visible if SplitBy = Phase. The user sets the liquid mass fraction split to the defined stream.

Mass Flow

With this method the user can specify the mass flow to either the Underflow or the Overflow on a total or by phase basis.

SplitTo Underflow The user specifies the mass flow to the Underflow stream.
Overflow The user specifies the mass flow to the Overflow stream.
SplitBy Total The user specifies the total mass flow to the defined stream.
Phase The user specifies the solid mass flow and the liquid mass flow to the defined stream.
UF or OF.MassFlowReqd /
UF or OF.QmReqd
Input This is visible if SplitBy = Total. The user sets the total mass flow to the defined stream.
UF or OF.SolidMassFlowReqd /
UF or OF.SolidQmReqd
Input This is visible if SplitBy = Phase. The user sets the solid mass flow to the defined stream.
UF or OF.LiquidMassFlowReqd /
UF or OF.LiquidQmReqd
Input This is visible if SplitBy = Phase. The user sets the liquid mass flow to the defined stream.

Volume Fraction

With this method the user can specify the volume fraction to either the Underflow or the Overflow on a total or by phase basis.

SplitTo Underflow The user specifies the volume fraction split to the Underflow stream.
Overflow The user specifies the volume fraction split to the Overflow stream.
SplitBy Total The user specifies the total volume fraction split to the defined stream.
Phase The user specifies the solid and liquid volume fraction splits to the defined stream.
FracToUF or FracToOF Input This is visible if SplitBy = Total. The user sets the total volume fraction split to the defined stream.
SolidsToUF or SolidsToOF Input This is visible if SplitBy = Phase. The user sets the solid volume fraction split to the defined stream.
LiquidsToUF or LiquidsToOF Input This is visible if SplitBy = Phase. The user sets the liquid volume fraction split to the defined stream.

Volume Flow

With this method the user can specify the volume flow to either the Underflow or the Overflow on a total or by phase basis.

SplitTo Underflow The user specifies the volume flow to the Underflow stream.
Overflow The user specifies the volume flow to the Overflow stream.
SplitBy Total The user specifies the total volume flow to the defined stream.
Phase The user specifies the solid Volume flow and the liquid volume flow to the defined stream.
UF or OF.VolFlowReqd /
UF or OF .QvReqd
Input This is visible if SplitBy = Total. The user sets the total volume flow to the defined stream.
UF or OF.SolVolFlowReqd /
UF or OF.SolidQvReqd
Input This is visible if SplitBy = Phase. The user sets the solid volume flow to the defined stream.
UF or OF.LiqVolFlowReqd /
UF or OF.LiquidQvReqd
Input This is visible if SplitBy = Phase. The user sets the liquid volume flow to the defined stream.

Solid Separation

With this method the user can choose between setting the solids composition of the Overflow stream or defining the Underflow flowrate and then specifying the solids composition of the Underflow.

SolidsSeparMethod OF Solids Fraction The user specifies the solids mass fraction in the Overflow stream.
OF Solids Conc The user specifies the solids concentration in the Overflow stream.
OF Solids Conc25 The user specifies the solids concentration at 25°C in the Overflow stream.
Recovery to UF The user specifies the solids recovery to the Underflow stream, i.e. how much of the solids in the unit reports to the Underflow stream.
UF MassFlow The user specifies the total mass flow of the Underflow stream.
UF VolumeFlow The user specifies the total volume flow of the Underflow stream.
Solids Density Each solid species is split between the Overflow and Underflow streams based on the user specified SolidsCutDensity.
Solids PSD The user then specifies one of the Solid Methods for defining a partition curve which then separates the solids based on PSD data in the feed.
OFSolidFracReqd Input This is visible if SolidsSeparMethod = OF Solids Fraction. The user sets the solids mass fraction in the Overflow stream.
OFSolidConcReqd Input This is visible if SolidsSeparMethod = OF Solids Conc. The user sets the solids concentration in the Overflow stream.
OFSolidConc25Reqd Input This is visible if SolidsSeparMethod = OF Solids Conc25. The user sets the solids concentration at 25°C in the Overflow stream.
SolidsToUFReqd Input This is visible if SolidsSeparMethod = Recovery to UF. The user sets the mass fraction of solids in the unit that must report to the Underflow stream.
UFQmReqd Input This is visible if SolidsSeparMethod = UF MassFlow. The user sets the total mass flow of the Underflow stream.
UFQvReqd Input This is visible if SolidsSeparMethod = UF VolumeFlow. The user sets the total volume flow of the Underflow stream.
CutDensityMethod This is visible if SolidsSeparMethod = Solids Density.
Simple If the density of a solid species is greater than the SolidsCutDensity then it is all sent to the Underflow stream, otherwise it is all sent to the Overflow stream.
Erf An error function is used to determine the split of each solid species between the Overflow and Underflow streams based on the species density, SolidsCutDensity and Sharpness.
SolidsCutDensity Input This is visible if SolidsSeparMethod = Solids Density. The user sets the solids cut density which is used to determine how much of each solid species to send to the Overflow and Underflow streams.
Sharpness Input This is visible if SolidsSeparMethod = Solids Density and CutDensityMethod = Erf.
The following Solids Method (with Solids PSD) assumes the Solid-Liquid separator is used to emulate the screen.
Solid Separation Requirements.
SolidMethod Simple (no PSD) The feed does not need size distribution for this method and the unit acts as a simple mass splitter. If the user chooses this mode then they must define the solids and liquids split from the unit. (This option is visible for the Screen 2 model only)
Partition Curve The user inputs a Partition curve (fraction of feed solids per size interval reporting to the oversize) on the PartCrv(deck number) tab. The screen will use this curve, so the size distribution in the feed to the screen has no effect on products.
Note: A single partition curve is used for all the size distributions.
Whiten The screen model will calculate the solids split using the Whiten method. The user must specify the d50 and alpha, a measure of the sharpness of separation.
Karra The screen model will calculate the solids split using the Karra method. The user may specify either the d50 or the Screen area and Cut aperture.
Rosin-Rammler This method is based on a Rosin-Rammler type of function with the efficiency curve expression derived by Reid and Plitt. User must specify d50, sharpness of separation, maximum size allowed to undersize and minimum percent of solids reporting to oversize.
Lynch This method is based on a Lynch type of function. User must specify d50, sharpness of separation (m), maximum size allowed to undersize and minimum percent of solids reporting to oversize.
DelVillar-Finch This method is similar to Rosin-Rammler, but includes a term for the "fish hook" effect for entrainment.

Solid Method - Whiten

Whiten.CalcMethod d50 The user specifies the d50 of the screen.
d50 with Beta The user specifies the d50 of the screen and uses the Beta method to adjust for uncertainties in the finer fractions.
Aperture, Eff The user specifies the Screen Aperture and Efficiency. The unit then calculates the d50 of the Screen deck.
Aperture, Eff with Beta The user specifies the Screen Aperture and Efficiency and uses the Beta method to adjust for uncertainties in the finer fractions. The unit then calculates the d50 of the Screen deck.
Whiten.Aperture Input Only visible if one of the two Aperture CalcMethods are chosen. The Screen Aperture, used to calculate the d50.
Whiten.Efficiency / Eff Input The Whiten Efficiency of the Screen.
  • If the user selects one of the 'Aperture' methods, then this is used to calculate the d50.
  • If the user selects one of the 'd50' methods, then this value is used to calculate the Screen aperture (see Theoretical Nominal Screen Aperture).
Whiten.d50 Input/Calc If either of the d50 methods are chosen, this is entered by the user. If the Aperture method is chosen, this is a calculated value. This is the particle size with a 50% probability of reporting to the over or under size.
Whiten.Alpha Input The Efficiency parameter, alpha. An alpha value of between 8 and 15 is normal for screening. However, this does depend on the screening conditions and hence experience and/or test or plant data is required for accurate results.
Whiten.Beta Input Only visible if the d50 with Beta or Aperture,Eff with Beta CalcMethods are chosen. The Beta Efficiency parameter. This value takes into account uncertainties in the finer size fractions.
Whiten.Beta* Calc Only visible if the d50 with Beta or Aperture,Eff with Beta CalcMethods are chosen. Efficiency parameter.
Whiten.MaxSizeToUS Input The model will ensure that all particles LARGER than this size all report to the Screen deck oversize product. This value is often = Screen Deck Aperture. (See Model Theory).
Whiten.MinToOS Input The model will ensure that a minimum fraction of solids in each size distribution reports to the oversize product. For example, if the user specifies a minimum of 5%, then at least 5% of each size distribution will report to oversize. (See Model Theory).
Whiten.Rf Input The proportion of feed liquid reporting to the over size product to be used in the fines calculation.
Note: This value is only used to adjust the solids fine fraction to the screen oversize and NOT to set the fraction of liquid reporting to the oversize stream.

If the user has selected SolidMethod=Whiten and Whiten.CalcMethod = d50 or d50 with Beta, the following fields will be visible:

Theoretical Nominal Screen Aperture

Whiten.Efficiency / Eff Input The Whiten Efficiency of the Screen. Used to calculate the Screen aperture.
Whiten.TheorAperture Calc The calculated screen aperture, based on the specified d50, alpha and efficiency. Refer to equation 2 in Whiten Method.

Solid Method - Karra

Karra.CalcMethod d50 The user specifies the d50 of the screen.
Area The user specifies the Area and Cut aperture of the screen and the model calculates the d50 of the screen.
Karra.d50 Input Only visible if CalcMethod=d50. The user specified d50 of the screen.
Karra.TotalArea Input Only visible if CalcMethod=Area. The deck area.
Karra.Aperture Input Only visible if CalcMethod=Area. The deck cut aperture.
Karra.Wet Tick Box Only visible if CalcMethod=Area. This must be ticked if this is a wet screening application.
Karra.Factor Input Only visible if CalcMethod=Area. This is a tuning factor that may be used to adjust the calculated d50 of the screen deck. The default value is 1.
Karra.MaxSizeToUS Input The model will ensure that all particles LARGER than this size all report to the Screen deck oversize product. This value is often = Screen Deck Aperture. (See Model Theory).
Karra.MinToOS Input The model will ensure that a minimum fraction of solids in each size distribution reports to the oversize product. For example, if the user specifies a minimum of 5%, then at least 5% of each size distribution will report to oversize. This accounts for fines adhering to coarse particles or fines in the liquid.
Karra.Calc_d50 Calc Only visible if CalcMethod=Area. The calculated d50 of the deck, using the Karra equations.
Karra.d50 Calc Only visible if CalcMethod=Area. The d50 that is used to determine the screen partition curve. This is normally equal to the field above. But, if the calculated d50 > screen deck aperture, then the model will use the screen deck aperture.
Karra.FeedOversize Calc Only visible if CalcMethod=Area. The fraction of oversize material (Q) in the Feed to the deck.
Karra.FeedHalfsize Calc Only visible if CalcMethod=Area. The fraction of half size material (R) in the Feed to the deck.
Karra.FeedNearsize Calc Only visible if CalcMethod=Area. The fraction of near size material (Xn) in the Feed to the deck.
Karra.SolQmPerArea Calc Only visible if CalcMethod=Area. The calculated solids flow rate divided by the screen area.

Solid Method - Rosin-Rammler

RR.d50 Input The user specifies the d50 of the screen, the size which divides equally between oversize and undersize.
RR.Sharpness Input The user specifies the sharpness factor for separation, high values for sharper separation
RR.MaxSizeToUS Input The maximum size allowed to report to undersize.
RR.MinToOS Input The minimum percent solids (from feed) to report to oversize.

Solid Method - Lynch

Lynch.d50 Input The user specifies the d50 of the screen, the size which divides equally between oversize and undersize.
Lynch.Sharpness (m) Input The user specifies the sharpness factor for separation, high values for sharper separation.
Lynch.Alpha Calc Calculated from the Sharpness (m), refer to Lynch Method for more information.
Lynch.MaxSizeToUS Input The maximum size allowed to report to undersize.
Lynch.MinToOS Input The minimum percent solids (from feed) to report to oversize.

Solid Method - DelVillar-Finch

Finch.d50 Input The user specifies the d50 of the screen, the size which divides equally between oversize and undersize.
Finch.Sharpness Input The user specifies the sharpness factor (m) for separation, high values of m for sharper separation
Finch.d0 Input The largest particle size affected by the fish-hook for entrainment function.
Finch.MaxSizeToUS Input The maximum size allowed to report to undersize.
Finch.MinToOS Input The minimum percent solids (from feed) to report to oversize.
Finch.Rf Input Proportion of feed liquid reporting to the over size product.
UFSolidsMethod UF Solids Fraction The user specifies the solids mass fraction in the Underflow stream.
UF Solids Conc The user specifies the Solids concentration in the Underflow stream.
UF Solids Conc25 The user specifies the Solids concentration in the Underflow stream at 25°C.
UF Density The user specifies the density of the Underflow stream.
UFSolidFracReqd Input This is visible if UFSolidsMethod = UF Solids Fraction. The user sets the solids mass fraction in the Underflow stream.
UFSolidConcReqd Input This is visible if UFSolidsMethod = UF Solids Conc. The user sets the solids concentration in the Underflow stream.
UFSolidConc25Reqd Input This is visible if UFSolidsMethod = UF Solids Conc25. The user sets the solids concentration at 25°C in the Underflow stream.
UFRhoReqd Input This is visible if UFSolidsMethod = UF Density. The user sets the density of the Underflow stream.
 
VapourToUF Input The user may set the fraction of vapour entrainment to the Underflow stream. This will only be relevant IF the user has set the vapour entrainment values on the first tab to a value greater than zero.

Selected Solid Species Calculation Method

With this method the user may specify fractions of any number of solid species to bypass to either the Underflow or Overflow streams, or the user may specify the bypass to both Over and Under flow streams. Please see the examples in Model Theory.

BypassSpecies.png
Method None There is no overriding of solid species to the Underflow or Overflow streams.
Bypass to Underflow The user may specify the fractions of one or more Solid species that bypass to the Underflow stream.
Bypass to Overflow The user may specify the fractions of one or more Solid species that bypass to the Overflow stream.
Bypass to Both The user may specify the fractions of one or more Solid species that bypass the Solid-Liquid calculation block and is then split between the Over and Under flow streams.
BypassSeparCalcs Tick Box If this is enabled then the unit will NOT include the bypassed species fraction in the solid/liquid separation calculations. If it is not ticked, then the unit will include the fraction of bypassed species in the solid/liquid separation calculations. Please see the examples in Model Theory for clarification.
ShowByPassSolids Tick Box If this is enabled then the Count and Speciesx fields will be shown, otherwise they will be hidden.
Count Input Only visible if ShowByPassSolids is enabled. The number of solid species for which the user wishes to configure bypasses. This may be up to 10 species.
Solids Species Overall Bypass to Underflow, Overflow or Both
Speciesx Species List Only visible if ShowByPassSolids is enabled. The user may select a species from a drop down list of all of the Solid species in the project.
BypassFracx Input The user sets that fraction of species x that must bypass to the Underflow or Overflow streams OR that must bypass Both.
Example 1: The user chooses Bypass to Overflow, with Count = 1, Species1 = B(s) and BypassFrac1 = 10%, then 10% of B(s) will bypass the solids separation step and will report to the Overflow stream. 90% of B(s) will be involved in the solid-liquid calculation.
Example 2: The user chooses Bypass to Both, with Count = 1, Species1 = B(s), BypassFrac1 = 100% and FracToOF1 = 10%. ALL of B(s) will bypass the solids separation step, 10% of B(s) and will report to the Overflow stream and the remaining 90% will report to the Underflow stream.
FracToOFx Input This field is only visible if the user selects Bypass to Both. The user sets that fraction of species x that must bypass to the Overflow streams.
For example: The user chooses Bypass to Both, with Count = 1, Species1 = C(s), FracToOf1 = 100% and FracToOF1 = 50%. ALL of the C(s) will bypass the solids separation step, 50% of C(s) and will report to the Overflow stream and 50% will report to the Underflow stream.

Results

Temperature / T Display The temperature of mixture in the solid liquid separator.
MassFlow / Qm Display The total mass flow to the Underflow and Overflow streams.
VapourMassFlow / VQm Display The total flow of vapour to the Underflow and Overflow streams. (This does NOT include the vapour to the Vent)
UF.BypassMassFlow / UF.BypassQm Display The mass flow of the material that bypasses the underflow.
OF.BypassMassFlow / OF.BypassQm Display The mass flow of the material that bypasses the overflow.
BypassMassFlow / BypassQm Display The mass flow of the solids in the unit that bypasses the separation section.
UF.SolidsTakeoffQm Display Only visible for Classifying Precipitator. The solids mass flow takeoff from the underflow for recycle.
UF.SolidsTakeoffFrac Display Only visible for Classifying Precipitator. The mass fraction of solids in the underflow that reports to takeoff for recycle.
UF.FinalSf Display Only visible for Classifying Precipitator. The final underflow solids mass fraction after removal of solids takeoff.

Slurry Separation Results (Excluding Bypass)

UFSolidsRecovery Display The fraction of feed solids sent to the underflow.
UFLiquidRecovery Display The fraction of feed liquid sent to the underflow.
The following table displays the flows and compositions of the Underflow and Overflow streams. Note: These are for slurry only, vapours are excluded.
MassFlow / Qm Display The total mass flow in each of the Underflow and Overflow streams.
VolFlow / Qv Display The total volume flow in each of the Underflow and Overflow streams.
SolidMassFlow / SQm Display The solids mass flow in each of the Underflow and Overflow streams.
LiquidMassFlow / LQm Display The liquid mass flow in each of the Underflow and Overflow streams.
SolidFrac / Sf Display The solid fraction in each of the Underflow and Overflow streams.
Density / Rho Display The total density of each of the Underflow and Overflow streams.
SolidConc Display The solid concentration (mass of solids/density of slurry) in each of the Underflow and Overflow streams.
SolidConc25 Display The solid concentration at 25°C (mass of solids/density of slurry at 25°C) in each of the Underflow and Overflow streams.