Simple Heater

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General Description

The simple heater is generic "heat exchanger" model without regards to its heating media or heater size. It is only designed to give estimates of

1) Heater duty required by specifying the stream outlet temperature or

2) Stream Outlet temperature by specifying the heater duty.

Note: The Calcine & Fuel Project, which is distributed with SysCAD in the Examples folder, demonstrates the use of this model.

Diagram

The diagram shows the default drawing of the Simple Heater, with the required connecting streams. The unit will not operate unless all of the above streams are connected.

The physical location of the connections is not important; the user may connect the streams to any position on the drawing.

Inputs and Outputs

 Label RequiredOptional InputOutput Number of Connections Description Min Max. Input Required In 1 1 Input stream to heater. Output Required Out 1 1 Output stream from heater.

Behaviour when Model is OFF

If the user disables the unit, by un-ticking the On tick box, then the following actions occur:

• The Feed stream will flow straight out of the Product stream with no change in temperature;

So basically, the unit will be 'bypassed' without the user having to change any connections.

Model Theory

Heater Duty or Final Temperature:

The Simple heater uses the following equation to calculate the duty required or the final temperature of the stream.

(1) $\mathbf{\mathit{Q=\dot{m}\int Cp\boldsymbol{\Delta}T}}$

Simple Heater Design Calcs:

The simple Heater also contains some side calculations for HTC, area or LMTD. These calculations are for user information only, thus they have no affect on the mass and energy balance of the model. The basic equation used for these calculations is:

(2) $\mathbf{\mathit{Q=UA\boldsymbol{\Delta}T_{LM}}}$

NOTE: These side calculations are based on the actual duty of the simple heater.

Assumptions and Limitations

1. The simple heater cannot handle phase changes. Thus, it will not be suitable for steam condensing calculations.
2. The simple heater has only one inlet and one outlet, if multiple stream inlet/outlets are required, the user will have to add in tie unit operations for mixing and splitting.
3. No reactions are allowed in the heater.

Data Sections

The default access window consists of several sections,

1. SimpleHeater tab - This first tab contains general information relating to the unit.
2. VLE - Only visible if the Saturated T method is selected. Allows the user to set the component that the saturation temperature is based on.
3. HXCalc tab - This optional tab allows the user to set calculate design data for the unit based on the actual duty. Only visible if the HXSizeCalc option is enabled.
4. Info tab - Contains general settings for the unit and allows the user to include documentation about the unit and create Hyperlinks to external documents.
5. Links tab, contains a summary table for all the input and output streams.
6. Audit tab - Contains summary information required for Mass and Energy balance. See Model Examples for enthalpy calculation Examples.

Simple Heater Page

Unit Type: SimpleHeater - The first tab page in the access window will have this name.

Tag (Long/Short) Input / Calc Description/Calculated Variables / Options

Requirements

On Tick Box If this option is deselected, the heater will not be operational and thus inlet conditions = outlet conditions.
Method Fixed Duty This allows the user to specify the heater duty. The outlet temperature will be calculated from this.
Duty Tag This allows the user to set a tag that the unit will 'read' to set the duty. This is used to transfer energy from another unit operation.
Product Temperature This allows the user to specify the required outlet temperature. The heater duty is calculated from this.
Saturated T This method is only available in SysCAD 9.3 Build 137 or later. The outlet temperature will be equal to the saturation temperature for the component selected on the VLE tab page. The heater duty is calculated from this.
TemperatureDrop This allows the user to specify the required temperature drop across the heater. The heater duty is calculated from this.
TemperatureRise This allows the user to specify the required temperature rise across the heater. The heater duty is calculated from this.
DutyReqd Input This field is only visible if Fixed Duty is chosen for Method. The required duty.
Note: a positive duty is used for heating (rise in temperature), while a negative duty is used for cooling.
DutyTag Input This field is only visible if Duty Tag is chosen for Method. The required SysCAD Tag for the transferred duty, e.g. Boiler.HeatRqd1 (kW) or P1.EHX.HeatFlow (kW).
DutyReqd.Meas Calc Only available in Build 137 or later. This field is only visible if Duty Tag is chosen for Method. The current value of the SysCAD Tag for the transferred duty.
DutyFactor Input This field is only visible if Duty Tag is chosen for Method. The duty factor. To change from heating to cooling or vice versa, use -1.
TemperatureReqd / T_Reqd Input This field is only visible if Product Temperature is chosen for Method. The required product temperature.
TempDropReqd / TDropReqd Input This field is only visible if TemperatureDrop is chosen for Method. The required temperature drop across the heater.
Note: a negative drop can be used to define a temperature rise.
TempRiseReqd / TRiseReqd Input This field is only visible if TemperatureRise is chosen for Method. The required temperature rise across the heater.
Note: a negative rise can be used to define a temperature drop.

Options

HXSizeCalc Tick Box This option is only available in SysCAD 9.2 Build 134. This option will add the Calc tab for calculations of 1) Area 2) heat transfer coefficient (HTC) or 3) log mean temperature difference (LMTD) based on the actual duty of the heater.

Results

Duty Calc The actual Duty of the Heater.
HeatFlow Calc Only visible in Build 137 or later. The heat flow to the heater. This will be +ve when heat is added and -ve when heat is removed.
MassFlow / Qm Calc The mass flow rate.
TemperatureIn / Ti Calc The inlet temperature.
TemperatureOut / To Calc The outlet temperature.
DeltaT / dT Calc The change in temperature (To-Ti).
PressureIn / Pi Calc The inlet pressure.
PressureChange / dP Calc The change in pressure.
PressureOut / Po Calc The outlet pressure.
DensityIn / Rhoi Calc The inlet density.
DensityOut / Rhoo Calc The outlet density.
VapourFracIn / Vfi Calc The inlet vapour fraction.
VapourFracOut / Vfo Calc The outlet vapour fraction.
VapourFrac / Vf Calc The outlet vapour fraction.

HXCalc

This page is only visible if the HXSizeCalc option is ticked on the first tab page.

 Tag / Symbol Input / Calc Description/Calculated Variables / Options Heater Sizing Calculations ModelDuty Calc This is the actual duty for the simple heater (thus duty calculated in the first tab page). It is used for all calculations. CalculateWhat HTC This allows the user to calculate the required HTC based on Actual Heater Duty and specifying Area and LMTD. Area This allows the user to calculate the required Area based on Actual Heater Duty and specifying HTC and LMTD. LMTD This allows the user to calculate the required LMTD based on Actual Heater Duty and specifying HTC and Area. HTC Input/Calc Heat Transfer Coefficient - This field can be an input or a calculated variable depending on the method selected. Area Input/Calc Heat Transfer Area - This field can be an input or a calculated variable depending on the method selected. U*A / UA Calc HTC x Area LMTD Input/Calc Log Mean Temperature Difference - This field can be an input or a calculated variable depending on the method selected.

Adding this Model to a Project

Insert into Configuration file

Sort either by DLL or Group.

 DLL: (Build 136 or earlier) HeatXch1.dll → Units/Links → Heat Transfer: Simple Heater DLL: (Build 137 or later) HeatExchange.dll → Units/Links → Heat Transfer: Simple Heater or Group: Energy Transfer → Units/Links → Heat Transfer: Simple Heater

Insert into Project

 Insert Unit → Heat Transfer → Simple Heater

See Insert Unit for general information on inserting units.