Operators

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Operators Summary

Arithmetic Logical Comparison Bitwise Miscellaneous
+
-
*
/
^
Addition
Subtraction
Multiplication
Division
Power
AND
OR
XOR
NOT
Logical AND
Logical OR
Logical Exclusive OR
Logical NOT
<
<=
>
>=
==
<>
 !=
Less Than
Less Than or Equal To
Greater Than
Greater Than or Equal To
Equal To
Not Equal To
Not Equal To
BAND
BOR
BXOR
BNOT
Bitwise AND
Bitwise OR
Bitwise Exclusive OR
Bitwise NOT
( ) Roundbrackets

Operator Precedence

The following table lists the precedence of each operator in descending order.

  • The lines separate the different levels of operator precedence.
  • Where consecutive operators occur having the SAME precedence, then they are carried out from left to right
  • The Association column determines the order in which the operands are operated upon.
Symbol Name or Meaning Precedence
(From Highest to Lowest)
NOT
BNOT
-
+
Logical NOT
Bitwise NOT
Unary minus
Unary plus
Right to Left
^ Power Left to Right
*
/
Multiply
Divide
Left to Right
+
-
Add
Subtract
Left to Right
<
<=
>
>=
Less Than <
Less Than or Equal To
Greater Than
Greater Than or Equal To
Left to Right
==
<> OR !=
Equal To
Not Equal To
Left to Right
BAND Bitwise AND Left to Right
BXOR Bitwise exclusive OR Left to Right
BOR Bitwise OR Left to Right
AND Logical AND Left to Right
XOR Logical exclusive OR Left to Right
OR Logical OR Left to Right
= Assignment Right to Left

Operators

Operator Symbol Function Description Requirements / Evaluation Order

Arithmetic Operators

Addition + operand1 + operand2 This adds operand2 to operand1.
The operands must be numeric variables.
Subtraction - operand1 - operand2 This subtracts operand2 from operand1.
Multiplication * operand1 * operand2 This multiplies operand2 by operand1.
Division / operand1 / operand2 This divides operand1 by operand2.
Power ^ operand1 ^ operand2 This raises operand1 to the power operand2.

Comparison Operators

Less than < Operand1 < Operand2 Determine the validity of the given comparison.
  • Expression returns 1 if comparison is TRUE.
  • Expression returns 0 if comparison is FALSE.
The operands must be numeric variables
Less than or
Equal to
<= Operand1 <= Operand2
greater than > Operand1 > Operand2
greater than or
Equal to
>= Operand1 >= Operand2
Equal to == Operand1 = Operand2
Not Equal to <> OR
!=
Operand1 <> Operand2
Operand1 != Operand2

Logical Operators

Logical AND AND expression1 AND expression2 Returns 1 if both expressions are True,
Otherwise it returns 0.
Evaluates Expression1, if it is true
then expression2 is evaluated.
Logical OR OR expression1 OR expression2 Returns 1 if either or both expressions are True,
Otherwise it returns 0.
Evaluates Expression1, if it is false
then expression2 is evaluated.
Logical Exclusive OR XOR expression1 XOR expression2 Returns 1 if either but NOT both expressions are True,
Otherwise it returns 0.
Both expressions are evaluated.
Logical NOT NOT NOT expression Returns 1 if expression is False,
Returns 0 if expression is True.

Bitwise Operators

Bitwise AND BAND operand1 BAND operand2 Each bit of operand1 is compared with the corresponding bit of operand2.
  • If both of the bits are 1 the corresponding result bit is set to 1.
  • Otherwise the corresponding result bit is set to 0.
Bitwise OR BOR operand1 BOR operand2 Each bit of operand1 is compared with the corresponding bit of operand2.
  • If either of the bits are 1 the corresponding result bit is set to 1.
  • Otherwise the corresponding result bit is set to 0.
Bitwise Exclusive OR BXOR operand1 BXOR operand2 Each bit of operand1 is compared with the corresponding bit of operand2.
  • If either (but not both) of the bits are 1 then the corresponding result bit is set to 1.
  • Otherwise the corresponding result bit is set to 0.
Bitwise NOT BNOT BNOT operand This produces a bitwise complement of operand
  • all the bits in operand that were 1 are set to 0 and
  • all the bits in operand that were 0 are set to 1.

Miscellaneous Operators

Round Brackets ( )
  • Used in arithmetic expressions to ensure that certain operations are performed before other operations, regardless of the operator precedence.
  • Used in conditional expressions to ensure that certain conditions are complied with before other conditions.
  • Used in function declarations to contain the function arguments and by the function calls to contain the function parameters.

Notes

NOTES:

  1. Division by zero will result in an error as it is undefined. Please see How do I avoid a 'Divide by Zero' error? for ways of avoiding this error when using measured variables.
  2. Invalid operations (eg 0^0.5 or -3^0.5) will result in an error as it is undefined.
  3. See also Div and Mod.

Round Brackets Examples:

  1. Calculation:
    ...3 * (4 + 2) - ...
    In this case : 2 is added to 4 BEFORE the result is multiplied by 3.
  2. Logical
    ((variable1 > 5) AND (variable2 < variable3)) OR NOT variable4
    In this case, both variable1and variable2 must comply with the specified criteria or variable4 must be false, for this condition to be true.