Seawater Species Model
The Seawater model, is based on thermophysical properties depending on temperature and salinity, which is the mass fraction of a single Brine Species. The brine species may be
- NaCl(aq): Required Species. You must have both NaCl(aq) present; it can be added from the default database.
- An accurate chemical representation of standard seawater: Brine1
- A "synthetic" seawater: Brine2
- A brine pseudospecies: Brine3
These Brine species are available in the distributed Default DataBase, you should add the appropriate one to your project database.
If none of the brine species are present in the project configuration, then the model will default to using NaCl(aq) as the brine species.
Accurate Brine Representation
Based on the IAPSO Standard Seawater representation , we have Brine1 composition in parts per billion.
Cl 4874839 Na 4188071 Mg 471678 SO4 252152 Ca 91823 K 91159 HCO3 15340 Br 7520 BO3H3 2807 CO3 2134 BO4H4 900 Sr 810 F 610 CO2 86 OH 71
we introduce a chemically accurate Seasalt/Brine species Brine1(aq) or (s)
Mg0.047168 B0.000371 Cl0.487484 Na0.418807 Ca0.009182 F0.000061 C0.001756 O0.106498 S0.025215 Br0.000752 H0.002743 K0.009116 Sr0.000081
Note that this is still a single species, having the previous chemical composition.
Synthetic Brine Representation
Brine2 contains only the major components; sodium, potassium, and magnesium, together with chloride and sulphate.
Na0.4189 Cl0.4904 S.0252 O.1008 Mg0.0472 K0.0091
In building models where ongoing chemistry is important, then these representations can be used.
Brine3 has no chemical composition; it is effectively a single "element" with the correct molecular weight and can be used when chemistry is unimportant.
Note that the actual thermophysical calculations are the same in all cases. The Salinity of the brine is defined as
Mass of Brine Species/Total mass of liquid.
and for example, the density is given as a function
- Culkin, F., and P. S. Ridout, J. Atm. Ocean. Technol. 15 1072 (1998)</ref>
- The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam, Berlin Germany. Release on the IAPWS Formulation 2008 for the Thermodynamic Properties of Seawater