Pipe

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Pipe Pipe - Dynamic Mode

General Description

This is used to transfer material between two units in SysCAD. Each pipe can have only one source and one destination. The user will find that a large amount of information is contained in pipe.

  • In Steady State (ProBal) mode, the pipe serves as a simple link, which requires very little configuration.
  • In Dynamic mode the pipe contains additional fields relating to required flows and network configuration. Please see Pipe - Dynamic Mode for more information on this data.

Enabling Sub-Models

When a pipe, or link, is inserted in a SysCAD project, it will be a 'Simple' pipe, i.e. Flow conditions into the Pipe = Flow conditions out of the Pipe. However, users may specify a pressure drop and/or enable sub-models in a pipe. The user can select the sequence in which the sub-models act, however the pressure drop is applied first. To enable sub-models the user must un-tick the 'Simplify' tickbox, as shown below:

Pipe nonsimple.png

Available Sub-Models

Evaluation Block:

  1. Makeup Blocks (one or more) may be enabled in a Pipe. This allows the user to control the addition of streams such as reagents, water, air, etc to the pipe, often without having to use a PID or General controller.
  2. The Reaction Block (RB) allows the user to configure any number of reactions within the pipe.
  3. The Environmental Heat Exchanger Block allows the user to add or remove energy from the pipe using a number of different methods.
  4. The Evaporation Block allows the user to set the evaporation of either water only or a mixture of water and all other species that are specified as both liquid and vapour.
  5. The Vapour Liquid Equilibrium Block will attempt to ensure that the vapours and liquids of the selected species will be in equilibrium in the pipe. For example, if the equilibrium species is water and the pipe is at atmospheric pressure, then SysCAD will maintain the temperature at, or below, the saturated temperature of 99.97°C by evaporating water if required.
  6. Discard Blocks (one or more) may be enabled in a Pipe. This allows the user to control the discarding of material from the Pipe, usually without having to use a PID or General controller. This is available in Build 138 or later.

Model Procedures

Model Procedures allows the user to implement code directly within the Pipe. The code used is almost identical to the code in pgm files.

To enable this, on the "Info" tab page tick the "Procedures" tickbox, as shown below:

Pipe-MP Setup.png

Flowchart

The following shows the sequence of events if the Pipe is not simplified and any sub model options are enabled.

Pipe - ProBal.jpg

Model Theory

Pressure Drop Equations

Darcy Pressure Drop for slurry

(1) [math] \Delta P = \left( \rho_{all} * g * dZ \right) + \left[ \cfrac {1}{2} * \rho_{all} * vel^2 * \left( \cfrac{FricFactor * TotalLength}{D} + K_{minorLosses} \right) \right] [/math]

where

  • FricFactor can be specified or calculated as:
(2) [math]FricFactor = 8.0 {\left\{ { \left[ -2.457 * Ln \left({\cfrac{7}{Re}}\right)^{0.9} + 0.27 * \cfrac{Pipe_-Rough}{D} \right]}^{16} + \left( \cfrac {37530}{Re} \right)^{16} \right\}}^{-0.125}[/math]
  • Reynolds number
(3) [math]Re = \cfrac{D * vel * Density}{Viscosity}[/math]
Re has a lower limit of 1e-9.
Viscosity has a lower limit of 1e-12.
  • ρall = is density (Rho) of the complete mixture (all phases)
  • D = Diam - (2 * ScaleBuildup)
  • TotalLength = length (L) + Fitting Length (FitL)

Data Sections

The Dynamic Pipe contains additional fields relating to required flows and network configuration. Only the fields shown for ProBal are described here.

Summary of Data Sections

The pipe access window may consist of a number of sections. This number may increase or decrease, based on user configuration and / or number of species.

  1. Pipe-1 - The first section, contains general information relating to material flowing through the pipe, the Source and Destination units and allows the user to enable Demand. To enable the sub models (for example Reactions or Environmental Heat Exchange) in a Pipe, the user must first disable Simplify and then the Evaluation Block (EB) will be visible.
  2. PC - Optional tab that is visible if EB.Solubility.On and/or EB.PhaseChange@T.On is enabled on the first tab.
  3. RB - Optional tab that is visible if Reactions are enabled.
  4. EHX - Optional tab that is visible if Environmental Heat Exchanger is enabled.
  5. Evap - Optional tab that is visible if Evaporator is enabled.
  6. VLE - Optional tab that is visible if Vapour Liquid Equilibrium is enabled.
  7. MU - Optional tab, or multiple tabs if more than 1 Makeup Block is selected, Only visible if one of more Makeup Blocks are enabled in the Evaluation Block.
  8. DB - Optional tab, or multiple tabs if more than 1 Discard Block is selected. Only visible if one of more Discard Blocks are enabled in the Evaluation Block. Only available in Build 138 or later.
  9. Qi - This and subsequent tab pages, e.g. Qi.. and Sp, shows the properties of the inlet stream. This tab is only visible if Simplify is NOT enabled.
    • This is before any Evaluation Block sub-models are evaluated (see the Flowchart above).
  10. Qo - This and subsequent tab pages, e.g. Qo.. and Sp, shows the properties of the outlet stream. This tab is always visible.
    • This is before any Evaluation Block sub-models are evaluated (see the Flowchart above).
  11. Info tab - contains general settings for the unit and allows the user to include documentation about the unit and create Hyperlinks to external documents.
  12. MP tab - Optional tab, only visible if Procedures have been enabled on the Info tab page.
  13. Links tab, contains a summary table for all the input and output streams.
  14. Audit tab - contains summary information required for Mass and Energy balance. See Model Examples for enthalpy calculation Examples.

Pipe Page

Unit Type: Pipe-1 - The first tab page in the access window will have this name.

Tag (Long/Short) Input / Calc Description/Calculated Variables / Options
Tag Display This name tag may be modified with the change tag option.
Condition Display OK if no errors/warnings, otherwise lists errors/warnings.
ConditionCount Display The current number of errors/warnings. If condition is OK, returns 0.
GeneralDescription / GenDesc Display This is an automatically generated description for the unit. If the user has entered text in the 'EqpDesc' field on the Info tab (see below), this will be displayed here.
If this field is blank, then SysCAD will use the text in the 'ConnectDesc' field - this displays the Source and Destination tags of the pipe.

Results: Inlet Flow Conditions

MassFlow / Qm Calc The total mass of material flowing through the pipe.
VolFlow / Qv Calc The total volumetric flow through the pipe.
VolFlow / NQv Calc The normalised volumetric flow through the pipe. The volume is calculated at Normal Temperature and Pressure (NTP), default values are 25°C and 101.325kPa. This is only relevant for flows containing vapours.
NTP can be specified by the user in the configuration file (see Project Configuration).
TemperatureIn / Ti Calc The temperature of the material flowing into the pipe.
Temperature / T Calc The temperature of the material flowing into the pipe.
Density / Rho Calc The density of the material flowing into the pipe.
NDensity / NRho Calc The normalised density of the material flowing through the pipe (using inlet conditions). The normalised density is calculated at Normal Temperature and Pressure (NTP), default values are 25°C and 101.325kPa. This is only relevant for flows containing vapours.
NTP can be specified by the user in the configuration file (see Project Configuration).
Press_Input / Pi Calc The pressure into the pipe.

Outlet Flow Conditions

TemperatureOut / To Calc The temperature of the material flowing out of the pipe.
Press_Output / Po Calc The pressure out of the pipe.

Connections

Source_Link / SrcIO Display The tag of the source unit of the pipe, as well as the connection point, i.e. if the source is a thickener, whether the pipe is connected to the overflow or the underflow.
Destination_Link / DstIO Display The tag of pipe's destination unit, as well as the connection point.
Source_PortID / SrcTag Display The tag of the source unit of the pipe.
Destination_PortID / DstTag Display The tag of pipe's destination unit.
ConnectDescription / ConnectDesc Display A description for the pipe based on the SrcIO (pipe input) and DstIO (pipe output) fields. This is mainly used for reporting. SysCAD will copy this field into the GenDesc field IF the EqpDesc field on the Info' tab is blank.

Requirements

Configuration.Exists Display Only available in Build 137 or later. This field indicates if the pipe can be simplified. 0 = no configuration (can be simplified), 1 = configured (cannot be simplified). Types of configuration include reactions, makeups, qualities or species model configuration.
Simplify Tick Box By default this state is enabled, causing the pipe to be a 'simple' pipe with only the Qo tabs being visible. If the user wishes to set anything in the pipe or enable reactions, heat loss, etc, then this tick box must be disabled. Additional fields will then become visible and the user may set sub-models in the pipe.
Simplify.Blocked Display Only available in Build 137 or later. This field indicates if a pipe has been blocked from being simplified due to some configuration in the pipe. 1 = Simplify has been ticked but pipe is not simplified due to some configuration (Configuration.Exists = 1). 0 = Simplify is not ticked or pipe has been simplified.
Show.Qi Tick Box This tickbox is only visible if the pipe is NOT Simplified. The user may enable this to view both the Qi (flow into the pipe) and Qo (flow out of the pipe) tabs, which may be useful if the user has added reactions, heat exchange, etc to the pipe.

EB (Flow Evaluation Block)

Note This section is only visible if Simplify is Disabled.

Solubility.On Tickbox Only visible if Solubility has been defined for at least one species in the project and Plant Model - Soluble Tab - Global.Solubility = OFF. Allows the user to switch on any predefined solubility curve to adjust the composition of material in the unit.
PhaseChange@T.On Tickbox Only visible if Phase Change at Temperature has been defined for at least one species in the project and Plant Model - Species Tab - PhaseChange@T = OFF. Allows the user to switch on any predefined phase changes at temperature in the unit.
EvalSequence Calc The sequence in which the sub models (which are part of the evaluation blocks) will be calculated. The sequence is determined by the priority selection for the individual sub-models.
Note: If the user chooses On-AutoSequence then SysCAD will determine the sequence of the sub-models. The auto evaluation sequence followed will be the order the sub models are listed below.
Makeups Input The number of Makeup Blocks required. Extra dropdown options Makeup1, Makeup2, etc will be added to allow these to be switched on and off and prioritised in relation to the other sub-models.
MakeupX List This can be used to switch the Makeup Block (MU) on or off and prioritise it in relation to the other sub-models. If this is 'On' then the associated page, MUX becomes visible and may be configured.
Note: This field is only visible if the entry for 'Makeups' is greater than 0. If there is one makeup then X=1. If there are two makeups, then X=1 and X=2, etc.
Reactions List Reaction Block (RB) - Enable or disable Reactions and set the sequence in relation to the other sub-models. If this is 'On' then the associated page, RB becomes visible and may be configured.
Note: The user does not have to configure a reaction file, even if this block is checked.
EnvironHX List Environmental Heat Exchanger (EHX) - Enable or disable Environmental Heat Exchange and set the sequence in relation to the other sub-models. If this is 'On' then the associated page, EHX becomes visible and may be configured.
Note: The user does not have to configure an environmental heat exchange, even if this block is checked.
Evaporation List Evaporation Block (Evap) - Enable or disable the Evaporator and set the sequence in relation to the other sub-models. If this is 'On' then the associated page, Evap becomes visible and may be configured.
Note: The user does not have to configure an evaporator, even if this block is checked.
VLEquilibrium List Vapour Liquid Equilibrium (VLE) - Enable or disable Vapour Liquid Equilibrium and set the sequence in relation to the other sub-models. If this is 'On' then the associated page, VLE becomes visible and may be configured.
Note: This option may automatically adjust the species make-up.
Discard Input Only available in Build 138 or later. The number of discard blocks required. Extra dropdown options Discard1, Discard2, etc will be added to allow these to be switched on.
DiscardX List Only available in Build 138 or later. This can be used to switch the Discard Block (DB) on or off and prioritise it in relation to the other sub-models. If this is 'On' then the associated page, DBX becomes visible and may be configured.
Note: This field is only visible if the entry for 'Discards' is greater than 0. If there is one discard then X=1. If there are two discards, then X=1 and X=2, etc.

General Demand

Qm_Avail.Source / Src Display The mass flow available at the source, such as a Feeder or a Flash Tank. This field is only useful when Demand mode is used, either in a Feeder or as part of the Flash Train macro model.

Note This field will only be visible if ShowDemandAvail is enabled in Plant Model - FlwSolve - Demand Configuration.

Qm_Avail.Dest / Dst Display The mass flow available for the destination.

Note This field will only be visible if ShowDemandAvail is enabled in Plant Model - FlwSolve - Demand Configuration.

Qm_Demand.Source / Src Display The flow required at the source, ie. upstream.
Qm_Demand.Block / Blk Tickbox If this is enabled, then the Demand will be Blocked from perpetrating either up or downstream. This is used to prevent demand in a recycle and also to prevent a single unit seeing two feeders with Demand enabled. (Please see Demand for further information)
Qm_Demand.BlockLowQm / BlkLowQm Tickbox Available in Build 139 and later. If this is enabled, then the Demand will be Blocked from perpetrating if the demand from the downstream destination or user specified Qm_Demand.Reqd is small (ie less than PlantModel.DemandThresholdQm). This is used to prevent demand flow lower than the Demand Threshold.
Qm_Demand.Reqd Input The user may set a required mass flow through the pipe. This flow will filter back to the source unit and the model will attempt to satisfy this flow requirement.
Note: If the pipe is connected to a Feeder, the user should enable the variable 'Demand.On' on the Feeder. The Feeder will then deliver the mass flow required by the pipe. See Demand for more information on this feature.
Qm_Demand.Dest / Dst Display Flow required at destination, i.e. downstream. In Build 139 and later, if the demand is actively being blocked, some description will be shown to the right of the field to provide user feedback. Options are: "Blocked by Tear!", "Blocked!" and "Blocked by LowQm Threshold!".

FlashTrain Demand

Ft.Qm_Avail.Source Display The mass flow available at the source.

Note This field will only be visible if ShowDemandAvail is enabled in Plant Model - FlwSolve - Demand Configuration.

Ft.Qm_Avail.Dest Display The mass flow available for the destination.

Note This field will only be visible if ShowDemandAvail is enabled in Plant Model - FlwSolve - Demand Configuration.

Ft.Qm_Demand.Source Display The vapour flow required at the source, eg. flash tank flash vapour.
Ft.Qm_Demand.Dest Display Flow required at destination, eg. flash vapour to the heat exchanger.

Pressure Drop

Note This section is only visible if Simplify is Disabled.

Press_Mode None There is no pressure change in the pipe.
Drop The user can enter a fixed pressure drop in the pipe. The default is 0.
Boost The user can enter a fixed pressure boost in the pipe. The default is 0.
Darcy The pressure change will be calculated using the Darcy equation.
Fixed The user can type in a fixed pressure value.
Diameter Velocity The user may specify a velocity and SysCAD will calculate a pipe diameter to give the required velocity.
Note: SysCAD does NOT calculate a pressure drop for this method.
PressDropReqd Input Allows the user to enter a pressure drop. Visible when PressMethod = "Drop".
PressBoostReqd Input Allows the user to enter a pressure boost. Visible when PressMethod = "Boost".
PressureReqd Input Allows the user to specify the outlet pressure of the pipe. Visible when PressMethod = "Fixed".
PressChange / dP Calc The calculated pressure change across the pipe, based on the method selected by the user. This value will be zero for the 'None' and 'Diameter_Velocity' methods.
PressDrop / Pdrop Calc The calculated pressure drop across the pipe, based on the method selected by the user. This value will be zero for the 'None' and 'Diameter_Velocity' methods.
This value will always have the opposite sign to dP above.
The following fields are only visible if the Diameter_Velocity method is selected.
Diam Display The estimated nominal diameter of the pipe based on the user defined Velocity.
Velocity / Vel Input The user defined target velocity, SysCAD will estimate the required Pipe diameter needed to achieve this required velocity.
The following fields are only visible if the Darcy method is selected. see Model Theory
Diameter / Diam Input The Inner diameter of the pipe.
ScaleBuildUp Input The build up of material inside the pipe, thus reducing the ID of pipe. For a clean pipe, this value = 0.
K_Method Calc K Calculate K from user defined values.
Define_K Calculates the pressure drop using user specified pressure drop factor.
K_Value Input / Calc The pressure drop factor: K = f * L/D. If the Define_K method is selected, this is an input, otherwise it is calculated.
The following fields are visible if Calc_K method is selected.
Length Input The actual length of the pipe.
FittingsLength Input The fittings length of the pipe.
f_Method Calc_f Calculate the friction factor from user defined values.
Define_f The user can define a friction factor (f) to be used
FricFac Input The Darcy friction factor (f). Please note this is equivalent to (4) times Fanning's friction factor. Visible if Define_f method is selected.
Viscosity Input The Viscosity of the material flowing through the pipe. Visible if Calc_f method is selected.
PipeRough Input The Pipe Roughness value. Visible if Calc_f method is selected.
ReynoldsNo / Re Calc The calculated Reynolds number. Visible if Calc_f method is selected.
FricFac Calc The calculated Darcy friction factor (f). Visible if Calc_f method is selected. Please note this is equivalent to (4) times Fanning's friction factor.
K_MinorLosses Input K value for minor pressure losses in the pipe.
PipeDeltaZ Input The overall change of height for the pipe.
Velocity / Vel Calc The velocity in the pipe.
Note: a warning will be given if the velocity in the pipe is too high. Velocity limits maybe set/adjusted via View-PlantModel-RC Tab. See Range Checks

Tear

Priority Normal SysCAD determines the priority of the stream in the network and if the stream should be a tear stream and its solving order.
First The user may force the stream order to be first in the network.
Last The user may force the stream order to be last in the network.
ReqdType No Tear No manual tear is required.
Manual Tear This option is for when the user wants to influence the location of the tear stream in a recycle. This will force SysCAD to prioritise setting this pipe as a Tear stream. The system selected tear stream in the recycle loop will be reset to have no tear. It is possible to create more tears than are required. In some flowsheets, with some arrangement of controllers, it can be possible to reduce the number of iterations required to converge to a solution and/or reduce instability while converging.
Break This option is used when the user wants to 'break' the stream and manually set some parameters in the stream outlet.
Type No Tear The stream has no tears or breaks.
System Tear SysCAD has analysed the network and determined that the stream is a Tear stream because it is part of a recycle loop and is the most efficient stream to tear.
Manual Tear The user has manually set this stream as a Tear stream.
Break The user has manually 'broken' the stream.
Flange Display The relevant flange that will have the tear status. In SysCAD each pipe is connected using flanges and these will store the tear information.
TearBlock Display The relevant tear block.
AdjQmToEstQm Tickbox If this is enabled then the mass flow from the pipe will be forced to be equal to the estimated mass flow.

Qi and Qo Tab Pages

Tag (Long/Short) Input / Calc Description/Calculated Variables / Options
CopyToClipboard CopyToClipboard Button.png The mass flow, temperature, pressure and composition of the material in the pipe will be copied to the clipboard.
This can then be used to configure a Feeder using the PasteData Button in the Options Section. See How do I copy Stream data to a Feeder?
Include Properties Include Properties Button.png IncludeProps.png Displays a list of properties that the user can view or hide by clicking on the required property.
Energy Fields related to Thermodynamic properties, e.g. Hz, Hs, Cp, etc.
Saturation Fields related to the properties of the default Saturation species (usually H2O).
pH_Estimate Fields related to the pH estimate
Charge Fields related to Charge
Transport Transport properties such as viscosity and thermal conductivity
DensityCorrections Additional density correction variables
HeatsOfCombustion The Heat of Combustion is the heat released (ie. enthalpy change) if the stream components undergo complete combustion with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide gas and water.
Only available in Build 139 or later (replaces old Heating Values option).
ValuesAtUserTandP Additional variables will be evaluated at the user defined temperature and pressure
SolutionImpurities Impurity flows, fractions and concentrations.
H2OProperties Properties of pure water and steam
WaterQuality Properties of water streams such as hardness, alkalinity and oxygen demand
The following variables defines the species model that is used to calculate the physical properties of the stream, such as density, heat capacity, etc.
  • The SpModel.Reqd field is only shown if more than one Species Model is available in the project (eg. Standard and Bayer3). On a Qi, QFeed or QProd page, it is an input field, on a Qo page, it is a result field. The Species Model should only be explicitly chosen when a change in Species Model is required. In most cases SpModel.Reqd should simply be set to Inherit.
SpModel.Reqd Inherit Upstream configuration will be used.
Standard All the variables are calculated using the Mass Weighted Mean of the species.
Species Model Use an alternative species model, such as 'Bayer3' or 'Potash'.
SpModel.Used Standard The Standard species model is being used.
Species Model An alternative species model is being used.
SpModelType Display This field displays the Species Model type (or Name) used.
SpMdlIdNo Display This field displays a unique number generated when the Species Model is created.
ShowHeatingValues Tickbox Only available in Build 138 or earlier. If ticked, then the calorific Heating Values of the material in the stream will be displayed. For Build 139 or later, refer to Heats Of Combustion.
RangeChecksOn Tickbox This field is only shown on a QFeed page of units. If ticked, then range checks will be not be performed on the QFeed. Range checks can be globally switched off on the Plant Model - Settings tab page.

Qualities

Lockup.Action Input / Display The user may select Modify Content. The 'Lockup' values are set on the 'DLockup' tab.
The field displays the actual state of the Lock Up function: If this has been enabled then this will display 'Lockup.Action(On)', otherwise it will display 'Lockup.Action'. Please see LockUp for more information.
Note: Lockup must first be enabled on the Plant Model - Qualities Tab and created upstream of the surge unit before the user may modify it here.
MatTrack.Action Input / Display The user may select Modify Content. The 'Tracking' values are set on the 'DTrack' tab.
The field displays the actual state of the Material Tracking function: If this has been enabled then this will display 'MatTrack.Action(On)', otherwise it will display 'MatTrack.Action'. Please see Material Tracking for more information.
Note: Material Tracking must first be configured on the Plant Model - Qualities Tab and created upstream of the surge unit before the user may modify it here.
SzDist.Action Input / Display The user may select Modify Content. The 'Size Distribution' values are set on the 'DSz' tab.
The field displays the actual state of the Size Distribution function: If this has been enabled then this will display 'SzDist.Action(On)', otherwise it will display 'SzDist.Action'. Please see Size Distribution (PSD) for more information.
Note: Size Distribution must first be created upstream of the surge unit before the user may modify it here.
SzSSA.Action Input / Display The user may select Modify Content. The 'SSA' values are set on the 'SSA' tab.
The field displays the actual state of the SSA function: If this has been enabled then this will display 'SzSSA.Action(On)', otherwise it will display 'SzSSA.Action'. Please see Specific Surface Area (SSA) for more information.
Note: SSA must first be created upstream of the surge unit before the user may modify it here.
Lockup.InUse Display Displays the state of the LockUp function: Yes or No.
MatTrack.InUse Display Displays the state of the Material Tracking function: Yes or No.
SzDist.InUse Display Displays the state of the Size Distribution (PSD) function: Yes or No.
SzSSA.InUse Display Displays the state of the Specific Surface Area (SSA) function: Yes or No.

Properties

These properties are related to the material flowing in the stream, e.g. mass fraction, volumetric flow, density, etc.

Temperature / T Calc The temperature of the incoming material.
Pressure / P Calc The pressure of the incoming material.
Mass Flow
MassFlow / Qm Calc The total mass flow into the pipe.
SolidMassFlow / SQm Calc The mass of solids flowing into the pipe.
LiquidMassFlow / LQm Calc The mass of liquids flowing into the pipe.
VapourMassFlow / VQm Calc The mass of vapour flowing into the pipe.
SlurryMassFlow / SLQm Calc The mass of slurry flowing into the pipe.
AqDissolvedMassFlow / AqDissQm Calc The mass of dissolved aqueous species flowing into the pipe. This will be the flow of all aqueous species excluding water. Only available in Build 136 or later.
AqueousMassFlow / AqQm Calc The mass of all aqueous species (including water) flowing into the pipe. Only available in Build 136 or later.
Volume Flow
VolFlow / Qv Calc The total volume flow into the pipe.
SolidVolFlow / SQv Calc The volume of solids flowing into the pipe.
LiquidVolFlow / LQv Calc The volume of liquids flowing into the pipe.
VapourVolFlow / VQv Calc The volume of vapour flowing into the pipe.
SlurryVolFlow / SLQv Calc The volume of slurry flowing into the pipe.
Normal Volume Flow
NVolFlow / NQv Calc The normalised volumetric flow through the pipe. The volume is calculated at Normal Temperature and Presure (NTP). NTP can be specified by the user in the configuration file (see Project Configuration (cfg File)). Default values are 20C and 101.325kPa.
SolidNVolFlow / SNQv Calc The Normal volume of solids flowing into the pipe.
LiquidNVolFlow / LNQv Calc The Normal volume of liquids flowing into the pipe.
VapourNVolFlow / VNQv Calc The Normal volume of vapour flowing into the pipe.
SlurryNVolFlow / SLNQv Calc The Normal volume of slurry flowing into the pipe.
Totalised Mass Flow

These fields are only visible in a dynamic project, when Audit is turned on from the Plant Model. Only some of these fields may be shown depending on the Totaliser Flow options chosen.

Total.TotalMass / Total.Mt Calc The total mass which has flowed through the pipe since the model started running.
Total.SolidMass / Total.SMt Calc The total mass of solids which has flowed through the pipe since the model started running.
Total.LiquidMass / Total.LMt Calc The total mass of liquids which has flowed through the pipe since the model started running.
Total.VapourMass / Total.VMt Calc The total mass of vapour which has flowed through the pipe since the model started running.
Total.SlurryMass / Total.SLMt Calc The total mass of slurry (solids + liquids) which has flowed through the pipe since the model started running.
Totalised Volume Flow

These fields are only visible in a dynamic project when Audit is turned on from the Plant Model. Only some of these fields may be shown depending on the Totaliser Flow options chosen.

Total.TotalVolume / Total.Vt Calc The total volume which has flowed through the pipe since the model started running.
Total.SolidVolume / Total.SVt Calc The total volume of solids which has flowed through the pipe since the model started running.
Total.LiquidVolume / Total.LVt Calc The total volume of liquids which has flowed through the pipe since the model started running.
Total.VapourVolume / Total.VVt Calc The total volume of vapour which has flowed through the pipe since the model started running.
Total.SlurryVolume / Total.SLVt Calc The total volume of slurry (solids + liquids) which has flowed through the pipe since the model started running.
First Flow

These fields are only visible in a dynamic project when Audit is turned on from the Plant Model. Only some of these fields may be shown depending on the First Flow options chosen.

Qm.At.Step Calc The step that flow first occurs in the pipe since the model started running.
Qm.At.Time Calc The time that flow first occurs in the pipe since the model started running.
Density See the section on Density for further information.
Density / Rho Calc Calculated Density of the material
SolidDensity / SRho Calc Density of the solids phase
LiquidDensity / LRho Calc Density of the liquid phase
VapourDensity / VRho Calc Density of the vapour phase
SlurryDensity / SLRho Calc Density of the Slurry (Liquid and Solid phase)
SolidConc Calc The solids concentration at stream temperature.

Density Correction

Please see included properties - Density Correction.

Mass Fractions
SolidFrac / Sf Calc Solids mass fraction
LiquidFrac / Lf Calc Liquid mass fraction
VapourFrac / Vf Calc Vapour mass fraction
Slurry.SolidFrac / Slurry.Sf Calc Only available in Build 137 or later. Solids mass fraction on slurry basis (solids + liquids)
Slurry.LiquidFrac / Slurry.Lf Calc Only available in Build 137 or later. Liquid mass fraction on slurry basis (solids + liquids)
Volume Fractions (The following fields are only available in Build 137 or later.)
SolidVolFrac / Svf Calc Solids volume fraction
LiquidVolFrac / Lvf Calc Liquid volume fraction
VapourVolFrac / Vvf Calc Vapour volume fraction
Mole Flow
MoleFlow / QMl Calc The total number of moles flowing through the unit.
SolidMoleFlow / SQMl Calc The number of moles of solids flowing through the unit.
LiquidMoleFlow / LQMl Calc The total number of moles of liquids flowing through the unit.
VapourMoleFlow / VQMl Calc The total number of moles of vapours flowing through the unit.
SlurryMoleFlow / SLQMl Calc The total number of moles of solids and liquids flowing through the unit.
MlSolidFrac / MlSf Calc Solids mole fraction
MlLiquidFrac / MlLf Calc Liquid mole fraction
MlVapourFrac / MlVf Calc Vapour mole fraction
MoleWt Calc The average molecular weight of all the species.
SolidMoleWt / SMoleWt Calc Only available in Build 139 or later. The average molecular weight of all solid species.
LiquidMoleWt / LMoleWt Calc Only available in Build 139 or later. The average molecular weight of all liquid species.
VapourMoleWt / VMoleWt Calc Only available in Build 139 or later. The average molecular weight of all vapour species.

Energy Values

Please see included properties - Energy.

Values at User Defined T and P

Please see included properties - Values at User Defined T and P.

Solubility Values

Please see included properties - Solubility.

Saturation Values

Please see included properties - Saturation .

Acidity (pH)

Please see included properties - Acidity

Charge

Please see included properties - Charge

Transport Properties

Please see included properties - Transport

Heating Values

Only available in Build 138 or earlier, please see included properties - Heating Values. For Build 139 or later, refer to Heats of Combustion.

Heats of Combustion

Only available in Build 139 or later, please see included properties - Heats of Combustion.

Solution Impurities

Please see included properties - Solution Impurities

H2O Properties

Please see included properties - H2O Properties

User Property Calculations

Users can define their own calculations (called User Property Calculations) in the Project Configuration (cfg File) which will be displayed on the Qi/Qo page. Refer to Calculation Configuration for more details.

WQ Tab Pages

Please see included properties - Material Flow Section - Water Quality.

Sp and EC Tab Pages

The Sp tab shows the actual species flows in a pipe. It has mainly read only variables, except for the options that determine the species fractional basis and how the flows in columns 2 onwards are displayed. The method by which Fractions and Concentrations is calculated is affected by the Phase which is chosen. The Sp tab shows the species flows. The optional EC tab shows the elemental and component flows. Elements and Components are listed alphabetically.

The View Options allow the user to display the Species, Component and Elemental flows in columns 2 onwards in different ways. Not all options are available for the Species, Compounds and Elements.

If the BasisPerColumn option is ticked on the Views Tab of the Plant Model, then the basis can be selected for each individual column on the Sp page. If the BasisPerColumn option is NOT ticked, then the Basis can only be set once for all columns on the Sp page.

The Basis and Display options for the Elements section of the EC page and the Components section of the EC page can only be set once for all columns.

Phase Basis

Tag Option Description
Species Page (Sp)
SpBasis All The total mass or volume of the Direct Link will be used when calculating fractional values or concentrations.
Phase The mass or volume of each phase (solid, liquid or gas) will be used when calculating fractional values or concentrations.
Individual Phase The mass or volume of each Individual phase (solid, liquid, aqueous, organic, gas, etc.) will be used when calculating fractional values or concentrations.
Elements and Compounds Page (EC)
EleBasis All The total mass or volume of the Direct Link will be used when calculating elemental fractional values or concentrations.
Phase The mass or volume of each phase (solid, liquid or gas) will be used when calculating elemental fractional values or concentrations.
Individual Phase Only available in Build 138 or later. The mass or volume of each Individual phase (solid, liquid, aqueous, organic, gas, etc.) will be used when calculating elemental fractional values or concentrations.
EleDisplay

Only visible if
Phase or
Individual Phase
is chosen
for EleBasis
Sol,Liq,Vap Only visible if Phase is chosen for EleBasis. The solid, liquid and vapour elemental displays will be shown.
Sol,Liq Only visible if EleBasis = Phase. The solid and liquid elemental displays will be shown.
Liq,Vap Only visible if EleBasis = Phase. The liquid and vapour elemental displays will be shown.
Sol,Vap Only visible if EleBasis = Phase. The solid and vapour elemental displays will be shown.
Sol Only visible if EleBasis = Phase. Only the solid elemental displays will be shown.
Liq Only visible if EleBasis = Phase. Only the liquid elemental displays will be shown.
Vap Only visible if EleBasis = Phase. Only the vapour elemental displays will be shown.
IPhaseX Only visible if EleBasis = Individual Phase. Only the elemental displays for the chosen IPhase will be shown.
CmpBasis All The total mass or volume of the Direct Link will be used when calculating component fractional values or concentrations.
Phase The mass or volume of each phase (solid, liquid or gas) will be used when calculating component fractional values or concentrations.
CmpDisplay

Only visible if
Phase is chosen
for CmpBasis
Sol,Liq,Vap The solid, liquid and vapour component displays will be shown.
Sol,Liq The solid and liquid component displays will be shown.
Liq,Vap The liquid and vapour component displays will be shown.
Sol,Vap The solid and vapour component displays will be shown.
Sol Only the solid component displays will be shown.
Liq Only the liquid component displays will be shown.
Vap Only the vapour component displays will be shown.

View Options

View Option Visible on Sp Tab
Visible on EC Tab
Description
Mass Flow Yes Yes Mass Flow Rate of the species, element or component.
Mass Frac Yes Yes Mass Fraction of the species, element or component.
Conc Yes Yes The species, element or component concentration at Direct Link temperature and pressure, as mass/volume.
Conc25 Yes Yes The species, element or component concentration at 25°C and Direct Link pressure, as mass/volume.
Mole Flow Yes Yes Mole Flow Rate of the species, element or component.
Mole Frac Yes Yes Mole Fraction of the species, element or component.
Mole Conc Yes Yes The species, element or component molar concentration at Direct Link temperature and pressure, as moles/volume.
Mole Conc25 Yes Yes The species, element or component molar concentration at 25°C and Direct Link pressure, as moles/volume.
Molality Yes Yes The molar concentration per unit mass of water (solvent) for aqueous species only, excluding water. This is only available for Compounds and Elements in Build 139 or later.
Vol Flow Yes No Volume Flow Rate of the species.
Vol Frac Yes No Volume Fraction of the species.
NVol Flow Yes No Normalised Volume Flow Rate of the species. This is calculated at the user defined normal temperature and pressure.
NVol Frac Yes No Normalised Volume Fraction of the species. This is calculated at the user defined normal temperature and pressure.
Equiv Conc Yes No The equivalent concentration at Direct Link temperature and pressure, as eq/volume, based on calculated equivalent weight, only relevant for charged species.
Equiv Conc25 Yes No The equivalent concentration at 25°C and Direct Link pressure, as eq/volume, based on calculated equivalent weight, only relevant for charged species.
PartialP Yes No The partial pressure of the gaseous species only.
PartialPFrac Yes No The partial pressure fraction of the gaseous species only.
Specific Hf Yes No Specific enthalpy of the species, expressed as energy per unit mass.
Specific Hz Yes No Specific Hz of the species, expressed as energy per unit mass.
Specific Hs Yes No Specific Hs of the species, expressed as energy per unit mass.
Total Hf Yes No Total enthalpy of the species, expressed as energy per unit time.
Total Hz Yes No Total Hz of the species, expressed as energy per unit time.
Total Hs Yes No Total Hs of the species, expressed as energy per unit time.

Please see Species Flow Section for more details.

Hints and Comments

  1. The user must ensure that the View and Phase options will display the required variables. e.g. if the concentration of H2SO4(aq) is required, then the View would be 'CompntConc' and Phase should be 'Liquid'. If Phase is 'All', then the model calculates the acid concentration using the volume of solids, liquids and vapours.
  2. If the pipe is connected to a unit that is 'Reset' or emptied using the 'SetState' command then the output of the pipe, or the 'Qo' section will show zero flow.